The biofilm matrix

  title={The biofilm matrix},
  author={Hans-Curt Flemming and Jost Wingender},
  journal={Nature Reviews Microbiology},
The microorganisms in biofilms live in a self-produced matrix of hydrated extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) that form their immediate environment. EPS are mainly polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids and lipids; they provide the mechanical stability of biofilms, mediate their adhesion to surfaces and form a cohesive, three-dimensional polymer network that interconnects and transiently immobilizes biofilm cells. In addition, the biofilm matrix acts as an external digestive system by… 
Exopolysaccharides of the Biofilm Matrix: A Complex Biophysical World
Microbial biofilm development is observed on virtually all submerged surfaces in natural and industrial environments. Biofilms are also observed at interfaces as pellicles, or in the bulk of aquatic
The perfect slime.
  • H. Flemming
  • Biology
    Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
  • 2011
Biofilms: an emergent form of bacterial life
The fundamental role of the biofilm matrix is considered, describing how the characteristic features of biofilms — such as social cooperation, resource capture and enhanced survival of exposure to antimicrobials — all rely on the structural and functional properties of the matrix.
The Peculiar Functions of the Bacterial Extracellular Matrix.
The Exo-Polysaccharide Component of Extracellular Matrix is Essential for the Viscoelastic Properties of Bacillus subtilis Biofilms
The obtained results suggest that the EPS component of the matrix is essential for maintaining the viscoelastic properties of bacterial biofilms during their growth, which are crucial for biofilm survival in many environments.
Bacterial Extracellular Polysaccharides in Biofilm Formation and Function.
The diverse range of polysaccharide structures, properties, and roles highlight the importance of this matrix constituent to the successful adaptation of bacteria to nearly every niche.
Chronic WOUNDS Wound biofilms : what makes them stick ?
  • Biology
  • 2017
The sessile bacterial cells within the matrix of theBiofilm are characterised by their lack of movement, whereas the planktonic cells are dispersed from the biofilm and colonise other areas.
Interplay of physical mechanisms and biofilm processes: review of microfluidic methods.
An overview of the role of relevant physical processes in biofilm formation, including propulsion mechanisms, hydrodynamic effects, and transport of quorum sensing signals is presented.
Material properties of biofilms-a review of methods for understanding permeability and mechanics.
The reader is offered a guide to current technologies that can be utilized to specifically assess the permeability and mechanical properties of the biofilm matrix and its interacting components.
Artificial biofilms establish the role of matrix interactions in staphylococcal biofilm assembly and disassembly
It is found that the colloidal self-assembly of Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A cells and polysaccharides into viscoelastic biofilms is driven by thermodynamic phase instability of EPS.


The biofilm matrix--an immobilized but dynamic microbial environment.
Assembly and Development of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Matrix
Direct visualization reveals that Psl is a key scaffolding matrix component and opens up avenues for therapeutics of biofilm-related complications.
The role of intermolecular interactions: studies on model systems for bacterial biofilms.
Extracellular DNA required for bacterial biofilm formation.
Bacterial biofilms are structured communities of cells enclosed in self-produced hydrated polymeric matrix adherent to an inert or living surface that have inherent resistance to antibiotics and host immune attack.
Extracellular DNA in Single- and Multiple-Species Unsaturated Biofilms
It is concluded that extracellular DNA production in unsaturated biofilms is species dependent and that the phylogenetic information contained in this DNA pool is quantifiable and distinct from either total or cellular DNA.
Cooperation and conflict in microbial biofilms
A detailed individual-based simulation of a biofilm is used to investigate the outcome of evolutionary competitions between strains that differ in their level of polymer production, suggesting that polymer secretion provides a strong competitive advantage to cell lineages within mixed-genotype biofilms: global cooperation is not required.
Signals, Regulatory Networks, and Materials That Build and Break Bacterial Biofilms
A portion of this large body of work including the environmental signals and signaling pathways that regulate biofilm formation, the components of the biofilm matrix, and the mechanisms and regulation of biofilm dispersal are reviewed.
Biodegradability of biofilm extracellular polymeric substances.
Matrix polymers of Candida biofilms and their possible role in biofilm resistance to antifungal agents.
Biofilms formed on two different types of polyvinyl chloride catheter, obtained from different manufacturers, showed differences in susceptibility to amphotericin B, suggesting that drug resistance may arise as a result of highly specific, surface-induced gene expression.
Membrane Vesicles: an Overlooked Component of the Matrices of Biofilms
It is shown that membrane vesicles (MVs), structures derived from the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, are a common particulate feature of the matrix of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and were established as common biofilm constituents.