The biochemistry and physiology of S-nitrosothiols.

  title={The biochemistry and physiology of S-nitrosothiols.},
  author={Neil Hogg},
  journal={Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology},
  • N. Hogg
  • Published 2002
  • Biology, Chemistry
  • Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology
S-nitrosothiols are biological metabolites of nitric oxide. It has often been suggested that they represent a more stable metabolite of nitric oxide that can either be stored, or transported, although the evidence for this is sparse. There are many unanswered questions concerning how S-nitrosothiols are formed, how they are metabolized and how they elicit biological responses. These questions are highlighted by the fact that the known chemistry of nitric oxide, thiols, and S-nitrosothiols… 

Chemical Characterization of the Smallest S-Nitrosothiol, HSNO; Cellular Cross-talk of H2S and S-Nitrosothiols

The data presented in this study explain some of the physiological effects ascribed to H2S, but, more broadly, introduce a new signaling molecule, HSNO, and suggest that it may play a key role in cellular redox regulation.

The Chemistry and Biology of Nitroxyl (HNO): A Chemically Unique Species with Novel and Important Biological Activity

Among all nitrogen oxides, the one-electron reduced NO species, nitroxyl (HNO), remains poorly understood and inadequately studied, but has garnered much recent attention because of reports of its unique and potentially important biological activity.

Fast reductive ligation of S-nitrosothiols.

Nitric oxide (NO) plays many significant roles in physiology and pathophysiology. The cellular response to NO is mediated by different reactions of various reactive nitrogen species (RNS), including

Efficient nitrosation of glutathione by nitric oxide☆

Functions and Metabolism of S-Nitrosothiols and S-Nitrosylation of Proteins in Plants: The Role of GSNOR

Comparative analysis of the plant S-nitrosoproteome under control and stress conditions represents a valuable tool to obtain more insights to the role of NO in the signalling pathways of plant development and stress responses.

How are nitrosothiols formed de novo in vivo?

  • J. Lancaster
  • Biology
    Archives of biochemistry and biophysics
  • 2017

S-nitrosylation in plants - spectrum and selectivity.

This reversible protein modification is an important posttranslational, redox-based regulation mechanism for many proteins of different classes in animals and for plants, however, the importance of protein S-nitrosylation remained to be elucidated.



S-Transnitrosation reactions are involved in the metabolic fate and biological actions of nitric oxide.

A mechanism by which to explain the metabolic fate and distribution of NO among thiol pools in the vasculature is suggested, and S-transnitrosation at the cell surface in NO signal transduction is implicate.

The reaction of S-nitrosoglutathione with superoxide.

It is found that S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) rapidly reacted with O2- to generate glutathione disulfide and equimolar quantities of nitrite and nitrate, and it is concluded that O 2- may act as a physiological modulator of S- Nitrosation reactions by directly promoting the decomposition of S -nitrosothiols.

Mechanism of Nitric Oxide Release from S-Nitrosothiols*

Equilibrium constants for the transnitrosation reactions of reduced glutathione, either with S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine or with S -nitro so-L-cysteine indicate that S- Nitrosoglutathione formation is favored, indicating that the biological relevance of S-Nitrosothiol decomposition is discussed.

Xanthine Oxidase-mediated Decomposition ofS-Nitrosothiols*

XO decomposes RSNO by O·̄2-dependent and -independent pathways, and in the presence of oxygen it leads to peroxynitrite formation, and it is found that CysNO is an electron acceptor substrate for XO with aK m of 0.7 mm.

Metabolism of S-nitrosoglutathione by endothelial cells.

It is shown here that GSNO decomposition by bovine aortic endothelial cells has an absolute dependence on the presence of cystine in the cell culture medium, and that the intracellular thiol pool causes the reduction of extracellular disulfides to thiols, which then directly reduce GSNO.

Reaction between S-nitrosothiols and thiols: generation of nitroxyl (HNO) and subsequent chemistry.

It is found that S-nitrosothiols can react with thiols to generate nitroxyl (HNO) and the corresponding disulfide, which results in the generation of other species including NO, sulfinamide, and hydroxylamine.

Inhibition of Papain by S-Nitrosothiols

Results suggest that inactivation of papain byS-nitrosothiols is due to a direct attack of the highly reactive thiolate in the enzyme active site on the sulfur of S-nitrosos to form a mixed disulfide between the inactivator and papain.

Effect of Superoxide Dismutase on the Stability ofS-Nitrosothiols

It is concluded that CuZn-SOD may represent an important physiological modulator of steady-state concentrations of low-molecular-weight S-nitrosothiols in vitro and in vivo and proposes that GSH reduces enzyme-associated Cu2+to Cu1+which mediates the reductive decomposition of theS-nitrogenothiol to yield free NO.