Binding of neurotrophic ligands to rabbit spermatozoa was studied. Nicotinic cholinergic antagonists, [3H]alpha-bungarotoxin and [3H]dihydro-beta-erythroidine (DE), bound with high affinity to different sites in the tails of rabbit spermatozoa with the former binding to 10,207 sites/cell and the latter to 562 sites/cell. alpha-Bungarotoxin and DE sites resemble nicotinic sites in brain in binding affinity and specificity. [3H]Quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB), a muscarinic cholinergic antagonist, also bound with high affinity to a single class of sites located in the heads and tails of rabbit spermatozoa. The binding characteristics of the sperm muscarinic site are similar to muscarinic sites in both innervated and noninnervated cells. Rabbit spermatozoa incubated for 16-18 h in a medium which supported motility for an extended period possessed fewer binding sites than nonincubated spermatozoa for [3H] alpha-bungarotoxin and [3H]QNB and the KD for the latter ligand was also lower. Ligands specific for the kappa and delta opiate receptors showed no affinity for rabbit spermatozoa.