Shigella species are the aetiological agents of shigellosis, a severe diarrhoeal disease that is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Shigellosis causes massive colonic destruction, high fever and bloody diarrhoea. Shigella pathogenesis is tightly linked to the ability of the bacterium to invade and replicate intracellularly within the colonic epithelium. Shigella uses a type 3 secretion system to deliver its effector proteins into the cytosol of infected cells. Among the repertoire of Shigella effectors, many are known to target components of the actin cytoskeleton to promote bacterial entry. An emerging alternate theme for effector function is the targeting of the host ubiquitin system. Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification restricted to eukaryotes and is involved in many essential host processes. By virtue of sheer number of ubiquitin-modulating effector proteins, it is clear that Shigella has invested heavily into subversion of the ubiquitin system. Understanding these host-pathogen interactions will inform us about the strategies used by successful pathogens and may also provide avenues for novel antimicrobial strategies.