The axon initial segment and the maintenance of neuronal polarity

@article{Rasband2010TheAI,
  title={The axon initial segment and the maintenance of neuronal polarity},
  author={Matthew N. Rasband},
  journal={Nature Reviews Neuroscience},
  year={2010},
  volume={11},
  pages={552-562}
}
  • M. Rasband
  • Published 1 August 2010
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Nature Reviews Neuroscience
Ion channel clustering at the axon initial segment (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier has been suggested to be a key evolutionary innovation that enabled the development of the complex vertebrate nervous system. This innovation epitomizes a signature feature of neurons, namely polarity. The mechanisms that establish neuronal polarity, channel clustering and axon–dendrite identity during development are becoming clearer. However, much less is known about how polarity is maintained throughout life. Here… 
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TLDR
This Viewpoints article summarizes current knowledge about the AIS and highlights future challenges in understanding this key actor of neuronal physiology.
The Axon Initial Segment, 50Years Later: A Nexus for Neuronal Organization and Function.
The electrical significance of axon location diversity
TLDR
Evidence that the diversity of AIS and axon location has a substantial impact on the electrical properties is reviewed and it is speculated that the anatomical heterogeneity of axon locations expands synaptic integration within cell types and improves information processing in neural circuits.
Axon Initial Segment
The axon initial segment (AIS) is a specialised region of the axon where the action potential is initiated following integration of excitatory and inhibitory inputs. The AIS contains high density of
Role of the axon initial segment in the regulation of rotein transport and the maintenance of axonal identity
The transmission of information in the brain depends on the highly polarized architecture of neurons. A number of cellular transport processes support this organization, including active targeting of
The physiology of the axon initial segment.
The action potential generally begins in the axon initial segment (AIS), a principle confirmed by 60 years of research; however, the most recent advances have shown that a very rich biology underlies
Axon Initial Segment Cytoskeleton: Architecture, Development, and Role in Neuron Polarity
TLDR
How the AIS submembrane and cytoplasmic cytoskeletons contribute to different aspects of AIS polarity function is discussed and recent advances in understanding their AIS cytoskeleton assembly and stability are highlighted.
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References

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TLDR
It is speculated that the AIS has previously unappreciated forms of plasticity that influence neuronal excitability, and that AIS plasticity is regulated by the developmental or activity-dependent modulation of scaffolding protein levels rather than directly altering ion channel expression.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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