The avian Z-linked gene DMRT1 is required for male sex determination in the chicken

@article{Smith2009TheAZ,
  title={The avian Z-linked gene DMRT1 is required for male sex determination in the chicken},
  author={C. Smith and K. Roeszler and T. Ohnesorg and D. Cummins and P. Farlie and T. Doran and A. Sinclair},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2009},
  volume={461},
  pages={267-271}
}
Sex in birds is chromosomally based, as in mammals, but the sex chromosomes are different and the mechanism of avian sex determination has been a long-standing mystery. In the chicken and all other birds, the homogametic sex is male (ZZ) and the heterogametic sex is female (ZW). Two hypotheses have been proposed for the mechanism of avian sex determination. The W (female) chromosome may carry a dominant-acting ovary determinant. Alternatively, the dosage of a Z-linked gene may mediate sex… Expand
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  • Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • 2017
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The sex-determining mechanism as well as the genes and sex hormones mainly involved in gonadal differentiation and development of chicken are introduced. Expand
Primary sex determination in chickens depends on DMRT1 dosage, but gonadal sex does not determine secondary sexual characteristics in adult birds
TLDR
It is shown that DMRT1 is the key sex determination switch in birds and that it is essential for testis development, but that production of oestrogen is also a key factor in primary sex determination in chickens, and that this production is linked to D MRT1 expression. Expand
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Primary sex determination in birds depends on DMRT1 dosage, but gonadal sex does not determine adult secondary sex characteristics
TLDR
It is shown that DMRT1 dosage is the key sex determination factor in birds and that it is essential for testis development, but that production of estrogen is also a key factor in primary sex determination in chickens, and that this production is linked to D MRT1 expression. Expand
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TLDR
Results show that testis development does not require two Z-linked copies of DMRT1, but it does involve active upregulation of the gene, which implies active involvement in male development. Expand
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TLDR
Comparative gene mapping revealed that several genes on human chromosome 9 (HSA 9) have homologs on the chicken Z chromosome (GGA Z), indicating the common ancestry of large parts of GGA Z and HSA 9 and a Z-linked chicken ortholog of DMRT1, which has been implicated in XY sex reversal in humans. Expand
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TLDR
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It is proposed that two gene dosages are required for testis formation in ZZ males, whereas expression from a single Z chromosome in ZW females leads to female sexual differentiation. Expand
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TLDR
The Z-linked gene, DMRT1, supports the Z-dosage model of avian sex determination, and two novel W-linked genes, ASW and FET1, represent candidate female determinants. Expand
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TLDR
It is shown that murine Dmrt1 is essential for postnatal testis differentiation, with mutant phenotypes similar to those caused by human chromosome 9p deletions that remove the gene. Expand
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