The avian Z-linked gene DMRT1 is required for male sex determination in the chicken

@article{Smith2009TheAZ,
  title={The avian Z-linked gene DMRT1 is required for male sex determination in the chicken},
  author={Craig Allen Smith and Kelly N. Roeszler and T Ohnesorg and David Michael Cummins and Peter G Farlie and Timothy J. Doran and Andrew H. Sinclair},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2009},
  volume={461},
  pages={267-271}
}
Sex in birds is chromosomally based, as in mammals, but the sex chromosomes are different and the mechanism of avian sex determination has been a long-standing mystery. In the chicken and all other birds, the homogametic sex is male (ZZ) and the heterogametic sex is female (ZW). Two hypotheses have been proposed for the mechanism of avian sex determination. The W (female) chromosome may carry a dominant-acting ovary determinant. Alternatively, the dosage of a Z-linked gene may mediate sex… 
Primary sex determination in chickens depends on DMRT1 dosage, but gonadal sex does not determine secondary sexual characteristics in adult birds
TLDR
It is shown that DMRT1 is the key sex determination switch in birds and that it is essential for testis development, but that production of oestrogen is also a key factor in primary sex determination in chickens, and that this production is linked to D MRT1 expression.
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The detailed spatiotemporal expression patterns of DMRT1 in the developing chicken urogenital systems throughout embryonic development are observed, suggesting its various roles in the development of urogensital tissues in the chicken embryo.
Primary sex determination in birds depends on DMRT1 dosage, but gonadal sex does not determine adult secondary sex characteristics
TLDR
It is shown that DMRT1 dosage is the key sex determination factor in birds and that it is essential for testis development, but that production of estrogen is also a key factor in primary sex determination in chickens, and that this production is linked to D MRT1 expression.
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Avian sex, sex chromosomes, and dosage compensation in the age of genomics
Comparisons of the sex chromosome systems in birds and mammals are widening our view and deepening our understanding of vertebrate sex chromosome organization, function, and evolution. Birds have a
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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