The attentional blink

  title={The attentional blink},
  author={Kimron L. Shapiro and Jane E. Raymond and Karen Arnell},
  journal={Trends in Cognitive Sciences},

Figures from this paper

Delayed attentional engagement in the attentional blink.

There is a delay between detection and the selection of target candidates for consolidation in short-term memory during the attentional blink, resulting in improvement in T2 report, suggesting that processing of T1 was already completed or was at least protected when the cue was presented.

Revisiting the spread of sparing in the attentional blink

The findings present difficulties for the existing models of the AB, although the overall pattern observed is generally more consistent with the episodic simultaneous-type, serial-token (eSTST) model than with conventional resource accounts or distractor-based attentional selection accounts.

The “beam of darkness”: Spreading of the attentional blink within and between objects

The results from four experiments revealed that the AB increased within short temporal lags when T2 was presented on the same, rather than a different, bar as T1 (with T1–T2 spatial distance controlled for), suggesting that the spatiotemporal resolution of attention is modulated by global-object information.

Relationships between attentional blink magnitude, RSVP target accuracy, and performance on other cognitive tasks

The results suggest that individual differences in AB magnitude do not result from differences in effective RSVP target encoding and are not well explained by varied information-processing abilities.

Direct estimates of processing delays in the attentional blink

Responsibility times for T2 identification decreased as the lag between T1 and T2 was increased and accuracy of T 2 identification increased as the stimulus-onset asynchrony between T2 and the trailing mask was increased.

Does failure to mask T1 cause lag-1 sparing in the attentional blink?

The results demonstrate that T2 performance at lag 1 is significantly reduced in the presence of T1 masking, and the implications of this outcome are discussed in relation to theories of the AB.

Individual differences in the attentional blink. The important role of irrelevant information.

Evidence that the level of distractor processing and subsequent interference with target identification processes also differs between the two groups supports the hypothesis that nonblinkers are more efficient in ignoring irrelevant information than blinkers.

Attentional and perceptual factors affecting the attentional blink for faces and objects.

  • A. LandauS. Bentin
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance
  • 2008
The authors demonstrate that a multichannel model cannot account for the absence of AB effects on faces and suggest instead that perceptual salience of the face within the distracters' series as well as the available resources determine whether or not faces are blinked in RSVP.

Lag-1 sparing in the attentional blink: Benefits and costs of integrating two events into a single episode

  • B. HommelE. Akyürek
  • Psychology
    The Quarterly journal of experimental psychology. A, Human experimental psychology
  • 2005
Results suggest that, if two targets appear in close succession, they compete for attentional resources and, if the two competitors are of unequal strength the stronger one is more likely to win and be reported at the expense of the other.

Negative attentional set in the attentional blink: control is not lost

Findings demonstrate that a negative attentional set is maintained even though the central system is engaged in the in-depth processing of T1 during the AB, and whether its influence is modulated by task demands.



Attention to visual pattern information produces the attentional blink in rapid serial visual presentation

The present article reports a series of experiments in which the temporary attentional deficits that ensue when humans are required to select a target from among a temporal stream of stimuli presented at a rapid rate.

Similarity determines the attentional blink.

To investigate the importance of posttarget stimulation in AB production, the categorical, featural, and spatial similarity of the immediate posttarget item to other items in the stream was manipulated and significant AB effects were found in all conditions, suggesting that the presentation of any patterned stimulus in close temporal proximity to the target provokes the AB.

Category effects in temporal visual search

The observed category effect suggests that the probe detection deficit in RSVP may map a time course for spreading intra-category inhibition following temporal target selection and is argued that the deficit is attentionally-based rather than perceptually-based.

Direct measurement of attentional dwell time in human vision

It is suggested that visual attention is not a high-speed switching mecha-nism, but a sustained state during which relevant objects become available to influence behaviour, consistent with recent physiological results in the monkey.

Priming from the Attentional Blink: A Failure to Extract Visual Tokens but Not Visual Types

It is demonstrated that attentional gating within the blink operates only after substantial stimulus processing has already taken place, and is discussed in terms of two forms of visual representation, namely, types and tokens.

A two-stage model for multiple target detection in rapid serial visual presentation.

  • M. ChunM. Potter
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance
  • 1995
Results of Experiments 3-5 confirmed that AB is triggered by local interference from immediate posttarget stimulation and showed thatAB is modulated by the discriminability between the 1st target and the immediately following distractor.

Associative priming by targets and distractors during rapid serial visual presentation: does word meaning survive the attentional blink?

Although target priming and distractor priming both survived the AB, the 2 forms of priming appeared to have different bases and priming by T1 was larger, modulated by backward associative strength, and longer lasting.

Restricted attentional capacity within but not between sensory modalities

Streams of visual and/or auditory inputs containing occasional targets to be identified and recalled suggest a modality-specific restriction to concurrent attention and awareness; visual attention to one simple target does not restrict concurrent auditory attention to another.

Word meanings can be accessed but not reported during the attentional blink

Electrophysiological evidence that words presented during the attentional blink period are analysed to the point of meaning extraction, even though these extracted meanings cannot be reported 1–2 s later provides a demonstration of the modularity of human brain function.

The Slow Time-Course of Visual Attention

It is suggested that visual attention is not a high-speed switching mechanism, but instead a sustained state during which representations of relevant objects become available to guide behavior.