The association of GRB 060218 with a supernova and the evolution of the shock wave

  title={The association of GRB 060218 with a supernova and the evolution of the shock wave},
  author={Sergio Campana and Vanessa Mangano and Alexander J. Blustin and Peter. J. Brown and David N. Burrows and Guido L. Chincarini and Jay R. Cummings and G Cusumano and Massimo Della Valle and Daniele B. Malesani and P. M{\'e}sz{\'a}ros and J A Nousek and M J Page and Takanori Sakamoto and Eli Waxman and B. B. Zhang and Z. G. Dai and N. C. Gehrels and Stefan Immler and F. E. Marshall and Keith O. Mason and Alberto Moretti and P. T. O’Brien and Julian P. Osborne and Kim L. Page and Patrizia Romano and P. W. A. Roming and Gianpiero Tagliaferri and Lynn R. Cominsky and Paolo Giommi and Olivier Godet and Jamie A. Kennea and Hans A. Krimm and Lorella Angelini and Scott Douglas Barthelmy and Patricia T. Boyd and David M. Palmer and Alan A. Wells and Nicholas E. White},
Although the link between long γ-ray bursts (GRBs) and supernovae has been established, hitherto there have been no observations of the beginning of a supernova explosion and its intimate link to a GRB. In particular, we do not know how the jet that defines a γ-ray burst emerges from the star's surface, nor how a GRB progenitor explodes. Here we report observations of the relatively nearby GRB 060218 (ref. 5) and its connection to supernova SN 2006aj (ref. 6). In addition to the classical non… 

Shock break-out: how a GRB revealed the beginnings of a supernova

  • A. Blustin
  • Physics
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 2007
The Swift observations of GRB 060218, the first ever direct observations of the break-out and early expansion of a supernova shock wave, and the new questions and answers it leaves us with are presented.

GRB 060218: A Relativistic Supernova Shock Breakout

We show that the prompt and afterglow X-ray emission of GRB 060218, as well as its early (t ≲ 1 day) optical-UV emission, can be explained by a model in which a radiation-mediated shock propagates

Did we observe the supernova shock breakout in GRB 060218

The early optical data of GRB 060218 (the first 105 s after the trigger) have been interpreted as blackbody emission associated with the shock breakout of the associated supernova. If so, it is

GRB 060218 and GRBs associated with supernovae Ib/c

Context. The Swift satellite has given continuous data in the range 0.3–150 keV from 0 s to 10 6 s for GRB 060218 associated with SN2006aj. This Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) which has an unusually long

Astrophysics: Shock breakout caught on camera

The spectra and light curve of SN 2006aj was modelled to show that it had a much smaller explosion energy and ejected much less mass than other GRB-supernovae, suggesting that it was produced by a star with a mass was only about 20 times that of the Sun, leaving behind a neutron star, rather than a black hole.

Low-Luminosity GRB 060218: A Collapsar Jet from a Neutron Star, Leaving a Magnetar as a Remnant?

The gamma-ray burst (GRB) 060218 has a luminosity ~105 times lower than that of typical long GRBs and is associated with a supernova (SN). The radio afterglow displays no jet break, so this burst


The highly unusual pair of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) GRB060218 and an associated supernova, SN2006aj, has puzzled theorists for years. A supernova shock breakout and a jet from a newborn stellar mass


We discuss the results of the analysis of multi-wavelength data for the afterglows of GRB 081007 and GRB 090424, two bursts detected by Swift. One of them, GRB 081007, also shows a spectroscopically

Relativistic ejecta from X-ray flash XRF 060218 and the rate of cosmic explosions

Radio and X-ray observations of XRF 060218 (associated with supernova SN 2006aj), the second-nearest GRB identified until now, are reported, showing that this event is a hundred times less energetic but ten times more common than cosmological GRBs.

Prompt and Afterglow Emission Properties of Gamma-Ray Bursts with Spectroscopically Identified Supernovae

We present a detailed spectral analysis of the prompt and afterglow emission of four nearby long-soft gamma-ray bursts (GRBs 980425, 030329, 031203, and 060218) that were spectroscopically found to



Radio Supernova SN 1998bw and Its Relation to GRB 980425

SN 1998bw is an unusual Type Ic supernova that may be associated with the γ-ray burst GRB 980425. We use a synchrotron self-absorption model for its radio emission to deduce that the

An unusual supernova in the error box of the γ-ray burst of 25 April 1998

The discovery of afterglows associated with γ-ray bursts at X-ray, optical and radio wavelengths and the measurement of the redshifts of some of these events, has established that γ-ray bursts lie at

Gamma-Ray Burst Associated Supernovae: Outliers Become Mainstream

During the last eight years a clear connection has been established-between the two most powerful explosions in our Universe: core-collapse supernovae (SNe) and long gamma ray bursts (GRBs). Theory

An unexpectedly rapid decline in the X-ray afterglow emission of long γ-ray bursts

‘Long’ γ-ray bursts (GRBs) are commonly accepted to originate in the explosion of particularly massive stars, which give rise to highly relativistic jets. Inhomogeneities in the expanding flow result

An optical supernova associated with the X-ray flash XRF 060218

The data, combined with radio and X-ray observations, suggest that XRF 060218 is an intrinsically weak and soft event, rather than a classical GRB observed off-axis, which extends the GRB–supernova connection to X-rays flashes and fainter supernovae, implying a common origin.

Does the Detection of X-Ray Emission from SN 1998bw Support Its Association with GRB 980425?

We show that the recent identification of X-ray emission from SN 1998bw is naturally explained as synchrotron emission from a shock driven into the wind surrounding the progenitor by a mildly

A Subrelativistic Shock Model for the Radio Emission of SN 1998bw

SN 1998bw is the most luminous radio supernova ever observed. Previous discussions argued that its exceptional radio luminosity, ~4 × 1038 ergs s-1, must originate from a highly relativistic shock

An Asymmetric Energetic Type Ic Supernova Viewed Off-Axis, and a Link to Gamma Ray Bursts

Recent Subaru and Keck spectra reveal double-peaked profiles in the nebular lines of neutral oxygen and magnesium, different from those of known type Ic supernovae, with or without a gamma ray burst, and they can be understood if SN 2003jd was an aspherical axisymmetric explosion viewed from near the equatorial plane.

Trans-Relativistic Blast Waves in Supernovae as Gamma-Ray Burst Progenitors

We investigate the acceleration of shock waves to relativistic velocities in the outer layers of exploding stars. By concentrating the energy of the explosion in the outermost ejecta, such

Are Gamma-Ray Bursts in Star-Forming Regions?

The optical afterglow of the gamma-ray burst GRB 970508 (z=0.835) was a few hundred times more luminous than any supernova. Therefore, the name "hypernova" is proposed for the whole GRB/afterglow