BACKGROUND Oxidative stress was associated with prostate cancer (PCa). The expressions of prooxidant or antioxidant enzymes (myeloperoxidase [MPO], superoxide dismutase (SOD2), and catalase (CAT)) have been proved to be related to gene polymorphisms. Our study aimed to evaluate the association between genetic polymorphisms and the risk of PCa. METHODS Genotyping was carried out by genotyping system (MassARRAY iPLEX; Sequenom Inc, San Diego, CA) in 1388 patients with PCa and 1008 cancer-free controls in the Chinese population. RESULTS One SNP of SOD2 (rs5746136; P < .050, odds ratios (OR), 0.8806) was significant. Another SNP was shown to have limited association with the risk of PCa (rs554518; P = .09443) in all SNPs of CAT. In other SNPs, no significant difference was shown between genotype distributions in the patients with PCa and the control group. CONCLUSIONS Our data showed that rs5746136 of SOD2 was associated with susceptibility to PCa in the Chinese population of Han nationality. The possible association between rs8082134 of CAT and PCa risk needs further verification.