BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between chronic kidney disease (CKD), race-ethnicity, and vascular outcomes. METHODS A prospective, multiracial cohort of 3298 stroke-free subjects with 6.5 years of mean follow-up time for vascular outcomes (stroke, myocardial infarction, vascular death) was used. Kidney function was estimated using serum creatinine and Cockcroft-Gault formula. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to evaluate the relationship between kidney function and vascular outcomes. RESULTS In multivariate analysis, Cockcroft-Gault formula between 15 and 59 mL/min was associated with a significant 43% increased stroke risk in the overall cohort. Blacks with Cockcroft-Gault formula between 15 and 59 mL/min had significantly increased risk of both stroke (hazard ratio, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.47 to 4.77) and combined vascular outcomes (hazard ratio, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.10-2.92). CONCLUSIONS Chronic kidney disease is a significant risk factor for stroke and combined vascular events, especially in blacks.