The association between cannabis use and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies

  title={The association between cannabis use and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies},
  author={Shaul Lev-Ran and Michael Roerecke and Bernard Le Foll and Tony P. George and Kwame McKenzie and J{\"u}rgen Rehm},
  journal={Psychological Medicine},
  pages={797 - 810}
Background Longitudinal studies reporting the association between cannabis use and developing depression provide mixed results. The objective of this study was to establish the extent to which different patterns of use of cannabis are associated with the development of depression using meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Method Peer-reviewed publications reporting the risk of developing depression in cannabis users were located using searches of EMBASE, Medline, PsychINFO and ISI Web of… 
Association of cannabis use with the development of elevated anxiety symptoms in the general population: a meta-analysis
  • C. Twomey
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health
  • 2017
The findings indicate that cannabis use is no more than a minor risk factor for the development of elevated anxiety symptoms in the general population, and may inform the debate surrounding the legalisation of cannabis.
The association between cannabis use and mood disorders: A longitudinal study.
Cannabis Use and the Risk for Psychosis and Affective Disorders
The evidence that heavy use of high-THC/low-CBD types of cannabis increases the risk of psychosis is sufficiently strong to merit public health education and the possibility that CBD may be therapeutically useful.
Longitudinal Studies on the Etiology of Cannabis Use Disorder: A Review
CUD development is likely the product of interactions between biological, psychological, social, and environmental factors, and many more well-planned and developmentally sensitive prospective studies are needed to identify specific and reliable risk factors for CUD development.
Developmental sensitivity to cannabis use patterns and risk for major depressive disorder in mid-life: findings from 40 years of follow-up
The present findings provide evidence implicating frequent cannabis use during adolescence as a risk factor for later life depression, and future studies should further examine causality of effects in larger samples.


Exploring the association between cannabis use and depression.
Heavy cannabis use and depression are associated and evidence from longitudinal studies suggests that heavy cannabis use may increase depressive symptoms among some users, but it is still too early, however, to rule out the hypothesis that the association is due to common social, family and contextual factors that increase risks of both heavy cannabis Use and depression.
Cannabis use and depression: a longitudinal study of a national cohort of Swedish conscripts
Only subjects with the highest level of cannabis use had an increased crude hazard ratio for depression, and the finding of an increased risk of schizoaffective disorder is consistent with previous findings on the relation between cannabis use and psychosis.
Cannabis and depression: an integrative data analysis of four Australasian cohorts.
Cannabis use and risk of psychotic or affective mental health outcomes: a systematic review
Cannabis use and psychosocial adjustment in adolescence and young adulthood.
Cannabis use, and particularly regular or heavy use, was associated with increased rates of a range of adjustment problems in adolescence/ young adulthood-other illicit drug use, crime, depression and suicidal behaviours-with these adverse effects being most evident for school-aged regular users.
Cannabis abuse as a risk factor for depressive symptoms.
  • G. Bovasso
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The American journal of psychiatry
  • 2001
In participants with no baseline depressive symptoms, those with a diagnosis of cannabis abuse at baseline were four times more likely than those with no cannabis abuse diagnosis to have depressive symptoms at the follow-up assessment, after adjusting for age, gender, antisocial symptoms, and other baseline covariates.
Does cannabis use predict the first incidence of mood and anxiety disorders in the adult population?
The associations between cannabis use and the first incidence of depression and bipolar disorder, which remained significant after adjustment for strong confounders, warrant research into the underlying mechanisms.
Marijuana use and depression among adults: Testing for causal associations.
After adjusting for differences in baseline risk factors of marijuana use and depression, past-year marijuana use does not significantly predict later development of depression.
A longitudinal study of cannabis use and mental health from adolescence to early adulthood.
The findings suggest that the primary causal direction leads from mental disorder to cannabis use among adolescents and the reverse in early adulthood.