The ascending reticular activating system — from aminergic neurons to nitric oxide

  title={The ascending reticular activating system — from aminergic neurons to nitric oxide},
  author={Steven R. Vincent},
  journal={Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy},
  • S. Vincent
  • Published 1 February 2000
  • Biology
  • Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Neuroanatomy, Reticular Activating System
The reticular activating system (RAS) is a component of the reticular formation in vertebrate brains located throughout the brainstem that plays a significant role in coordinating both the sleep-wake cycle and wakefulness.
GABAergic neuron distribution in the pedunculopontine nucleus defines functional subterritories
Evidence of heterogeneity in the distribution of different neuronal populations in the PPN is provided and it is shown that GABAergic and cholinergic neurons define neurochemically distinct areas, and such differences define functional territories.
Modulatory effects of the GABAergic basal ganglia neurons on the PPN and the muscle tone inhibitory system in cats.
The results suggest that GABAergic basal ganglia output controls postural muscle tone by modulating the activity of cholinergic PPN neurons which activate the muscle tone inhibitory system.
Phasic modulation of cortical high-frequency oscillations by pedunculopontine neurons.
Urotensin II acts as a modulator of mesopontine cholinergic neurons
Pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus. Part I: cytoarchitecture, transmitters, development and connections
The reviewed connections of PPN suggest that it is involved significantly in the arousal systems, and is implicated in the disturbances of sleep and wakefulness, as well as in the movement disorders.
The Case for the Bulbospinal Respiratory Nitric Oxide Synthase-Immunoreactive Pathway in the Dog
Evidence is provided for a hitherto unknown premotor bulbospinal respiratory nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive pathway connecting the bulbar respiratory centers with the motor neurons of the phrenic nucleus in the dog.
Nitric oxide synthase-containing neurons in the amygdaloid nuclear complex of the rat
The nitric oxide-producing neurons in the rat amygdala (Am) were studied, using reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPHd) histochemistry, and their involvement in neurodegenerative diseases is discussed.
Glutamatergic and cholinergic pedunculopontine neurons innervate the thalamic parafascicular nucleus in rats: changes following experimental parkinsonism
The results support the view that heterogeneous chemical profiles account for PPN efferent neurons innervating thalamic targets and suggest that the ascending projections from the PPN that reach basal ganglia-related targets could play an important role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease.


Further Observations on the Role of Nitric Oxide in the Feline Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
Responses of cells in animals without retinal, cortical and parabrachial input to the LGN suggest a postsynaptic site of action of nitric oxide, and modulation of the gain of visual signals transmitted to the cortex suggests a completely novel pathway for Nitric oxide regulation of function.
Substance P in the ascending cholinergic reticular system
It is discovered that a subpopulation of the ascending cholinergic reticular neurones contains substance P, which means that peptide–cholinergic coexistence, previously noted in peripheral neurones, also occurs in the brain.
Evidence that Nitric Oxide Is Involved in the Control of Electrocortical Arousal
It is suggested that nitric oxide may be an important endogenous molecule mediating fast and transient “alert” reactions to external stimuli and is strengthened by a recent work which has demonstrated that Nu-nitro-Larginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of NOS,’ given systemically or icv, prevents ECoG arousal evoked by acoustic stimulation in rats.
Monoamines and nitric oxide are employed by afferents engaged in midline thalamic regulation
  • K. OtakeD. Ruggiero
  • Biology
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • 1995
The data predict that the labile transcellular messenger NO may enable structurally differentiated subnuclei of the diffuse thalamocortical projection system to act in concert as a functionally unified unit and conclude that the n.Pvt is a site of interaction of NO and monoaminergic afferents derived from nuclei implicated in sensory gating, regulation of electrocortical neural activity and behavior.