The aryl hydrocarbon receptor: an environmental sensor integrating immune responses in health and disease

  title={The aryl hydrocarbon receptor: an environmental sensor integrating immune responses in health and disease},
  author={Veit Rothhammer and Francisco J. Quintana},
  journal={Nature Reviews Immunology},
The environment, diet, microbiota and body’s metabolism shape complex biological processes in health and disease. However, our understanding of the molecular pathways involved in these processes is still limited. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that integrates environmental, dietary, microbial and metabolic cues to control complex transcriptional programmes in a ligand-specific, cell-type-specific and context-specific manner. In this Review, we… 

The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor: A Mediator and Potential Therapeutic Target for Ocular and Non-Ocular Neurodegenerative Diseases

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The key player in the pathogenesis of environmental influence of systemic lupus erythematosus: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor

The homeostatic regulation of AhR and its ligands among various types of immune cells, pathophysiological roles, in addition to the roles of various related cytokines and signaling pathways in the occurrence and development of SLE are discussed.

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Recent studies on the role and modalities of AhR activation by various ligands, derived from either host-cell or microbial-cell tryptophan metabolic pathways, in the regulation of immune responses are reviewed.

More than a cell biosensor. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor at the intersection of physiology and inflammation.

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The effects of AhR on several innate and adaptive immune cells associated with autoimmunity, and the mechanism on how AhR participates in autoimmune diseases are summarized to provide valuable information for exploring novel and effective approaches to autoimmune disease treatments.

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Current knowledge on the array of transcription factors and coregulators that, by interacting with AhR, tune its transcriptional activity in response to endogenous and exogenous ligands are reviewed.



Dynamic regulation of serum aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists in MS

The data suggest that AHR agonists in serum are dynamically modulated during the course of MS, which may guide the development of biomarkers to monitor disease activity as well as the design of novel therapeutic interventions for MS.

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor: multitasking in the immune system.

The current understanding of the molecular interactions and functions of AhR in the immune system in steady state and in the presence of infection and inflammation is reviewed, with a focus on barrier organs such as the skin, the gut, and the lung.

Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Control of Adaptive Immunity

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor provides a molecular pathway through which environmental factors modulate the immune response in health and disease and the potential to target the AhR for therapeutic immunomodulation is discussed.

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor control of a disease tolerance defence pathway

It was found that a first exposure of mice to LPS activated the ligand-operated transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor and the hepatic enzyme tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, which provided an activating ligand to the former, to downregulate early inflammatory gene expression, pointing to a role for AhR in contributing to host fitness.

An endogenous tumour-promoting ligand of the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor

Evidence is provided for a previously unidentified pathophysiological function of the AHR that is constitutively generated by human tumours via tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), a liver- and neuron-derived Trp-degrading enzyme not yet implicated in cancer biology.

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It is shown that in the CD4+ T-cell lineage of mice AHR expression is restricted to the TH17 cell subset and its ligation results in the production of the TH16 cytokine interleukin (IL)-22, and AHR ligands may represent co-factors in the development of autoimmune diseases.

Type I interferons and microbial metabolites of tryptophan modulate astrocyte activity and CNS inflammation via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor

Findings suggest that IFN-Is produced in the CNS function in combination with metabolites derived from dietary tryptophan by the gut flora to activate AHR signaling in astrocytes and suppress CNS inflammation.