The artificial pancreas.

@article{Boughton2020TheAP,
  title={The artificial pancreas.},
  author={Charlotte K. Boughton and Roman Hovorka},
  journal={Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation},
  year={2020}
}
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Advances in diabetes technologies have enabled the development of artificial pancreas (closed-loop) systems for people with diabetes. We review the key studies which have led to the adoption of the artificial pancreas in clinical practice and consider ongoing challenges and areas for future enhancements. RECENT FINDINGS Studies have demonstrated safety and efficacy of closed-loop insulin delivery systems in free-living settings over periods of up to 6 months for children and… 
3 Citations
Artificial intelligence in diabetology
TLDR
There is an urgent need for further research in this field, with an assessment of the clinical effectiveness and economic feasibility, and the use of artificial intelligence for the analysis of large databases, registers, and real-world evidence studies seems to be promising.
The management of type 1 diabetes in adults. A consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD)
TLDR
Although the schedule for follow-up examinations and testing is discussed, the evaluation and treatment of the chronic microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes are not included as these are well-reviewed and discussed elsewhere.

References

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Closed‐Loop Insulin Delivery for Glycemic Control in Noncritical Care
TLDR
Among inpatients with type 2 diabetes receiving noncritical care, the use of an automated, closed‐loop insulin‐delivery system resulted in significantly better glycemic control than conventional subcutaneous insulin therapy, without a higher risk of hypoglycemia.
Closed-Loop Insulin Delivery during Pregnancy in Women with Type 1 Diabetes.
TLDR
Overnight closed-loop therapy resulted in better glucose control than sensor-augmented pump therapy in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes and maintained glycemic control during a high proportion of the time in a period that encompassed antenatal hospital admission, labor, and delivery.
Closed-loop insulin delivery in adults with type 1 diabetes
TLDR
Close-loop insulin delivery in adults with type 1 diabetes is safe during pregnancy and may be beneficial in women with suboptimal glycaemic control, and three randomised crossover studies confirm the feasibility and efficacy of overnight closed-loop diabetes care.
One Year Clinical Experience of the First Commercial Hybrid Closed-Loop System
TLDR
While Auto Mode utilization correlates with improved glycemic control, a focus on usability and human factors is necessary to ensure use of Auto Mode.
A Novel Dual-Hormone Insulin-and-Pramlintide Artificial Pancreas for Type 1 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial
TLDR
A novel rapid insulin-and-pramlintide artificial pancreas system improves glucose control compared with a rapid insulin's alone, and two novel dual-hormone artificial Pancreas systems are proposed.
Do-It-Yourself Artificial Pancreas System and the OpenAPS Movement.
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Artificial pancreas treatment for outpatients with type 1 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis
TLDR
Artificial pancreas systems are an efficacious and safe approach for treating outpatients with type 1 diabetes and were consistent in a subgroup analysis both for single hormone and dual hormone artificial pancrea systems.
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