The architecture of virtual machines

@article{Smith2005TheAO,
  title={The architecture of virtual machines},
  author={James E. Smith and Ravi Nair},
  journal={Computer},
  year={2005},
  volume={38},
  pages={32-38}
}
A virtual machine can support individual processes or a complete system depending on the abstraction level where virtualization occurs. Some VMs support flexible hardware usage and software isolation, while others translate from one instruction set to another. Virtualizing a system or component -such as a processor, memory, or an I/O device - at a given abstraction level maps its interface and visible resources onto the interface and resources of an underlying, possibly different, real system… 

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