The apomorphine test: a biological marker for heroin dependence disorder?

@article{Guardia2002TheAT,
  title={The apomorphine test: a biological marker for heroin dependence disorder?},
  author={Jos{\'e} Guardia and Miguel Casas and Gemma Prat and Joan Trujols and Lidia Segura and M. S{\'a}nchez-Turet},
  journal={Addiction Biology},
  year={2002},
  volume={7}
}
This experimental study was conducted in the inpatient detoxification addictive behavior unit of the Sant Pau Hospital in Barcelona and included 22 healthy subjects (HS) and 42 intravenous heroin‐dependent subjects (HDS). Apomorphine‐induced yawning rates were investigated in three different groups; heroin‐dependent patients stabilized on d‐propoxiphene, heroin‐dependent patients recently withdrawn from d‐propoxiphene and normal controls. Yawning responses were recorded continuously by… 
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