The effectivenss of maltose tetrapalmitate (MTP) as an antitumour immune adjuvant was verified by its comparison with other known immunopotentiators, namely BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, levamisole and pyran copolymer. Copenhagen x Fisher 344/CRBL F1 hybrid male rats inoculated s.c. with the Dunning R3327A prostatic adenocarcinoma were used as the test system. All animals treated with immunoadjuvants showed a delay in tumour appearance and inhibition of early tumour growth. MTP was found to be the most effective, followed by levamisole, BCG, pyran copolymer and C. parvum in order of decreasing efficacy. Intratumoral treatment of small or large s.c. tumours with BCG, MTP and C. parvum was ineffective in our cases. However, this treatment was effective with MTP and BCG if they were used against a differentiated form of R3327 tumour. MTP and levamisole were found to be equally effective when given orally in drinking water. Experiments involving surgical excision of tumours followed by MTP therapy in two s.c. implanted animal tumour models (viz. a poorly immunogenic ascites mammary carcinoma 13762 in Fisher 344/CRBL rats, and an SV40 virus-induced sarcoma of low immunogenicity in Syrian hamster) showed beneficial effects of MTP on local tumour recurrence and tumour growth. Pre- and postoperative MTP treatment was at least as effective as postoperative MTP treatment alone.