The anti-predator function of ‘eyespots’ on camouflaged and conspicuous prey

@article{Stevens2008TheAF,
  title={The anti-predator function of ‘eyespots’ on camouflaged and conspicuous prey},
  author={Martin Stevens and Claire L. Stubbins and Chloe J. Hardman},
  journal={Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology},
  year={2008},
  volume={62},
  pages={1787-1793}
}
Animals utilise various strategies to reduce the risk of predation, including camouflage, warning colours and mimicry, and many of these protective signals promote avoidance behaviour in predators. For example, various species possess paired circular ‘eyespots’, which startle or intimidate predators, preventing or halting an attack. However, little is known of how the efficacy of such signals relates to the context in which they are found, and no studies have tested the relative effectiveness… 
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References

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TLDR
Three experiments find that the features which make effective antipredator wing markings are large size and higher numbers of spots, which support other recent work indicating that conspicuousness, and not eye mimicry, is important in promoting avoidance behavior in predators and that eyespots on real animals need not necessarily, as most accounts claim, mimic the eyes of other animals.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
The results show that natural selection acts against eyespots in the dry season, favouring crypsis, whereas in the wet season it may favour eyespots as deflective patterns.
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