The air speed of migrating birds and its relationship to the wind

@article{Bloch2004TheAS,
  title={The air speed of migrating birds and its relationship to the wind},
  author={Raymond Bloch and Bruno Bruderer},
  journal={Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology},
  year={2004},
  volume={11},
  pages={19-24}
}
This paper deals with the flight speeds of migrating birds observed by radar over a Swiss Alpine pass. The distributions of air speeds for different classes of birds and the influence of the wind on air speeds were investigated. Our findings differ greatly from observations of bird migration over the North Atlantic Ocean and the North American continent. Our data reveal: (1) that the air speeds of the bulk of migrating birds were in the range of 8–18 m/s and that the amount of ‘slow’ flyers… CONTINUE READING

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