The age and diversification of the angiosperms re-revisited.

@article{Bell2010TheAA,
  title={The age and diversification of the angiosperms re-revisited.},
  author={Charles D. Bell and Douglas E. Soltis and Pamela S. Soltis},
  journal={American journal of botany},
  year={2010},
  volume={97 8},
  pages={
          1296-303
        }
}
UNLABELLED PREMISE OF THE STUDY It has been 8 years since the last comprehensive analysis of divergence times across the angiosperms. Given recent methodological improvements in estimating divergence times, refined understanding of relationships among major angiosperm lineages, and the immense interest in using large angiosperm phylogenies to investigate questions in ecology and comparative biology, new estimates of the ages of the major clades are badly needed. Improved estimations of… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Constraining uncertainty in the timescale of angiosperm evolution and the veracity of a Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution

A Bayesian molecular dating method is used to analyse a dataset of 83 genes from 644 taxa and 52 fossil calibrations to explore the effect of different interpretations of the fossil record, molecular clock models, data partitioning, among other factors, on angiosperm divergence time estimation, and indicates that the timescale of angiosperms diversification is much less certain than previous molecular dating studies have suggested.

Bayesian molecular clock dating and the divergence times of angiosperms and primates

This analysis demonstrates that even though many sources of uncertainty are explored, attempts to control for these factors still do not bring clock estimates and earliest confident fossil occurrences into agreement, highlighting that more room for improvement might lie in refining the knowledge and use of fossil calibrations, the resulting improvements to molecular estimates of timescales will lead to a better understanding of angiosperm evolution.

Evaluating the Impact of Genomic Data and Priors on Bayesian Estimates of the Angiosperm Evolutionary Timescale

It is suggested that reliable estimates of the angiosperm crown age will require increased taxon sampling, significant methodological changes, and new information from the fossil record, as well as a range of additional sensitivity and subsampling analyses.

Assembling the Angiosperm Tree of Life: Progress and Future Prospects

The five lineages of Mesangiospermae, as well as most major core eudicot lineages, each likely arose within a narrow range of just a few million years, and gave rise to angiosperm-dominated forests, which are also associated with the diversification of ants, beetles, hemipterans, amphibians, and most extant ferns.

Origin of angiosperms and the puzzle of the Jurassic gap

A study reconstructed angiosperm phylogeny on the basis of plastome data representing 2,351 angiosperm and 187 gymnosperm species, and dated the origin of crown angiosperms to be significantly earlier than the estimates based on fossil data.

Five major shifts of diversification through the long evolutionary history of Magnoliidae (angiosperms)

The ages of the main clades of Magnoliidae (above the family level) are older than previously thought, and in several lineages, there were significant increases and decreases in net diversification rates.

Bees diversified in the age of eudicots

All of the major bee clades are estimated to have originated during the Middle to Late Cretaceous, which is when angiosperms became the dominant group of land plants.

Diversification of land plants: insights from a family-level phylogenetic analysis

This broad-scale phylogenetic analysis helps to reveal the successive waves of diversification that made up the diversity of land plants the authors see today.

Fossil calibration of Magnoliidae, an ancient lineage of angiosperms

The position and ages for 10 fossils of Magnoliidae are reviewed, selected because of their previous inclusion in phylogenetic analyses of extant and fossil taxa and detailed justifications of their phylogenetic position and absolute age have been lacking.

Evolution of Angiosperm Pollen. 3. Monocots1

The most rapid rate of state changes in pollen characters, in the evolutionary history of monocots, is estimated to have occurred during the Albian-Turonian stage and may provide insights into the identification of enigmatic fossil pollen grains from this geological time.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 108 REFERENCES

THE AGE OF THE ANGIOSPERMS: A MOLECULAR TIMESCALE WITHOUT A CLOCK

Results indicate that widely divergent age estimates can result from the different methods, different sources of data, and the inclusion of temporal constraints to topologies, and agree with the hypothesis that the angiosperms may be somewhat older than the fossil record indicates.

Angiosperm diversification through time.

Angiosperm diversity is found to have mixed origins: slightly less than half of the living species belong to lineages with low to moderate diversification rates, which appeared between 130 and 102 Mya (Barremian-uppermost Albian; Lower Cretaceous).

ANGIOSPERM DIVERGENCE TIMES: THE EFFECT OF GENES, CODON POSITIONS, AND TIME CONSTRAINTS

Although absolute age estimates of angiosperms and angiosperm clades are older than their earliest fossils, the estimated pace of phylogenetic diversification largely agrees with the rapid appearance ofAngiosperm lineages in stratigraphic sequences.

Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree

Angiosperm divergence times are estimated using non–parametric rate smoothing and a three–gene dataset covering ca.

Dating the Dipsacales: comparing models, genes, and evolutionary implications.

A wide range of divergence times that can be obtained using different methods and data sets is demonstrated, and cautions against reliance on age estimates based on only a single gene or methodology.

Sources of error and confidence intervals in estimating the age of angiosperms from rbcL and 18S rDNA data.

Approximate 95% confidence intervals on ages are wider for rbcL than 18S, ranging up to 160 my for phylogenetic uncertainty, 90 my for substitutional noise, and 70 my for lineage effects, as well as some estimates from previous molecular studies.

Origin and Early Evolution of Angiosperms

Analyses of morphological and molecular data reveal a revised “anthophyte clade” consisting of the fossils glossopterids, Pentoxylon, Bennettitales, and Caytonia as sister to angiosperms, indicating that polyploidy may have been an important catalyst in angiosperm evolution.

Ferns diversified in the shadow of angiosperms

It is shown that polypod ferns (> 80% of living fern species) diversified in the Cretaceous, after angiosperms, suggesting perhaps an ecological opportunistic response to the diversification of angios perms, as angiosPerms came to dominate terrestrial ecosystems.

Rate heterogeneity among lineages of tracheophytes: Integration of molecular and fossil data and evidence for molecular living fossils

This study minimize the potential error caused by inaccurate topology and uncertain calibration times by using a well-supported tree, multiple genes, and multiple well-substantiated dates to explore the correspondence between the fossil record and molecular-based age estimates for major clades of tracheophytes.

The earliest angiosperms: evidence from mitochondrial, plastid and nuclear genomes

This study demonstrates that Amboreella, Nymphaeales and Illiciales-Trimeniaceae-Austrobaileya represent the first stage of angiosperm evolution, with Amborella being sister to all other angiosperms, and shows that Gnetales are related to the conifers and are not sister to the angios perms, thus refuting the Anthophyte Hypothesis.
...