The afterglow, the redshift, and the extreme energetics of the gamma-ray burst 990123

@article{Kulkarni1999TheAT,
  title={The afterglow, the redshift, and the extreme energetics of the gamma-ray burst 990123},
  author={S. Kulkarni and S. Djorgovski and S. Odewahn and J. Bloom and R. Gal and C. Koresko and F. Harrison and L. Lubin and L. Armus and R. Sari and G. Illingworth and D. Kelson and D. Magee and P. V. Dokkum and D. Frail and J. Mulchaey and M. Malkan and I. McLean and H. Teplitz and D. Koerner and D. Kirkpatrick and N. Kobayashi and I. Yadigaroglu and J. Halpern and T. Piran and R. Goodrich and F. Chaffee and M. Feroci and E. Costa},
  journal={arXiv: Astrophysics},
  year={1999}
}
Afterglow, or long-lived emission, has now been detected from about a dozen well-positioned gamma-ray bursts. Distance determinations made by measuring optical emission lines from the host galaxy, or absorption lines in the afterglow spectrum, place the burst sources at significant cosmological distances, with redshifts ranging from ~1--3. The energy required to produce the bright gamma-ray flashes is enormous: up to ~10^{53} erg or 10 percent of the rest mass energy of a neutron star, if the… Expand
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