The afterglow, redshift and extreme energetics of the γ-ray burst of 23 January 1999

  title={The afterglow, redshift and extreme energetics of the $\gamma$-ray burst of 23 January 1999},
  author={Shrinivas R. Kulkarni and S. George Djorgovski and S. C. Odewahn and Joshua S. Bloom and R. R. Gal and Christopher Duro Koresko and Fiona A. Harrison and Lori M. Lubin and Lee Armus and Re’em Sari and Garth D. Illingworth and D. D. Kelson and Daniel K. Magee and Pieter G. van Dokkum and Dale A. Frail and John S. Mulchaey and M. Malkan and I. S. McClean and Harry I. Teplitz and David William Koerner and Davy Kirkpatrick and N. Kobayashi and I. A. Yadigaroglu and Jules P. Halpern and Tsvi Piran and Robert W. Goodrich and Frederic H. Chaffee and Marco Feroci and Enrico Costa},
Long-lived emission, known as afterglow, has now been detected from about a dozen γ-ray bursts. Distance determinations place the bursts at cosmological distances, with redshifts, z, ranging from ∼1 to 3. The energy required to produce these bright γ-ray flashes is enormous: up to ∼10 53 erg, or 10 per cent of the rest-mass energy of a neutron star, if the emission is isotropic. Here we present optical and near-infrared observations of the afterglow of GRB990123, and we determine a redshift of… 

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