The aerodynamics of insect flight

@article{Sane2003TheAO,
  title={The aerodynamics of insect flight},
  author={Sanjay P. Sane},
  journal={Journal of Experimental Biology},
  year={2003},
  volume={206},
  pages={4191 - 4208}
}
  • S. Sane
  • Published 1 December 2003
  • Biology
  • Journal of Experimental Biology
SUMMARY The flight of insects has fascinated physicists and biologists for more than a century. Yet, until recently, researchers were unable to rigorously quantify the complex wing motions of flapping insects or measure the forces and flows around their wings. However, recent developments in high-speed videography and tools for computational and mechanical modeling have allowed researchers to make rapid progress in advancing our understanding of insect flight. These mechanical and computational… 

Flapping wing aerodynamics: from insects to vertebrates

By comparing flapping flight across insects and vertebrates, it is identified how their morphology and kinematics govern both shared and distinct aerodynamic mechanisms, and open research questions in animal flight are highlighted.

The mechanisms of lift enhancement in insect flight

  • F. Lehmann
  • Biology, Engineering
    Naturwissenschaften
  • 2004
Man manipulation of the translational and rotational aerodynamic mechanisms may provide a potent means by which a flying animal can modulate direction and magnitude of flight forces for manoeuvring flight control and steering behaviour.

Aerodynamics, sensing and control of insect-scale flapping-wing flight

There are nearly a million known species of flying insects and 13 000 species of flying warm-blooded vertebrates, including mammals, birds and bats. While in flight, their wings not only move forward

Insect and insect-inspired aerodynamics: unsteadiness, structural mechanics and flight control.

A two-dimensional aerodynamic model of freely flying insects.

  • M. Iima
  • Physics
    Journal of theoretical biology
  • 2007

Insect flight

Correction to ‘Aerodynamics, sensing and control of insect-scale flapping-wing flight’

In this article, recent advances in insect-scale flapping-wing aerodynamics, flexible wing structures, unsteady flight environment, sensing, stability and control are reviewed with perspective offered.

Flight of the dragonflies and damselflies

This work is a synthesis of our current understanding of the mechanics, aerodynamics and visually mediated control of dragonfly and damselfly flight, with the addition of new experimental and

Wake Structure and Vortex Development in Flight of Fruit Flies Using High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry

Understanding the dynamics of force and energy control in flying insects requires the exploration of how oscillating wings interact with the surrounding fluid. In two-winged insects, such as flies,

Development of a Kinematical Model to Study the Aerodynamics of Flapping-Wings

The kinematics that characterizes the “natural flight” of insects is quite complex. It involves simultaneous rotations, oscillations and significant changes in the angle of attack. All this permits
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 126 REFERENCES

Leading-edge vortices in insect flight

INSECTS cannot fly, according to the conventional laws of aerodynamics: during flapping flight, their wings produce more lift than during steady motion at the same velocities and angles of attack1–5.

The novel aerodynamics of insect flight: applications to micro-air vehicles.

  • C. Ellington
  • Engineering
    The Journal of experimental biology
  • 1999
Design characteristics of insect-based flying machines are presented, along with estimates of the mass supported, the mechanical power requirement and maximum flight speeds over a wide range of sizes and frequencies.

The Wing Beat of Drosophila Melanogaster. II. Dynamics

The dynamics of the wing beat of tethered flying Drosophila melanogaster support the notion that flight in small insects might be dominated by unsteady mechanisms.

Biology and physics of locust flight. III. The aerodynamics of locust flight

  • M. Jensen
  • Engineering
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
  • 1956
A proper understanding of how locusts fly must be based upon knowledge of how the wings are moved. A desert locust was suspended from a balance and placed in an air stream so that it flew under

The Aerodynamics of Hovering Insect Flight. IV. Aeorodynamic Mechanisms

A full derivation is presented for the vortex theory of hovering flight outlined in preliminary reports. The theory relates the lift produced by flapping wings to the induced velocity and power of

Unconventional lift-generating mechanisms in free-flying butterflies

Train red admiral butterflies to fly freely to and from artificial flowers in a wind tunnel, and use high-resolution, smoke-wire flow visualizations to obtain qualitative, high-speed digital images of the air flow around their wings, show that free-flying butterflies use a variety of unconventional aerodynamic mechanisms to generate force.

The Aerodynamics of Hovering Insect Flight. III. Kinematics

Insects in free flight were filmed at 5000 frames per second to determine the motion of their wings and bodies. General comments are offered on flight behaviour and manoeuvrability. Changes in the

The aerodynamics of revolving wings I. Model hawkmoth wings.

This study uses propeller models to investigate further the forces acting on model hawkmoth wings in 'propeller-like' rotation ('revolution'), and finds force coefficients are remarkably unaffected by considerable variations in leading-edge detail, twist and camber.

The control of flight force by a flapping wing: lift and drag production.

A dynamically scaled mechanical model of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is used to study how changes in wing kinematics influence the production of unsteady aerodynamic forces in insect flight, finding no evidence that stroke deviation can augment lift, but it nevertheless may be used to modulate forces on the two wings.

THE AERODYNAMICS OF HOVERING INSECT FLIGHT. V. A VORTEX THEORY

A full derivation is presented for the vortex theory of hovering flight outlined in preliminary reports. The theory relates the lift produced by flapping wings to the induced velocity and power of
...