The adult male voxel model ”Golem” segmented from whole-body CT patient data

  title={The adult male voxel model ”Golem” segmented from whole-body CT patient data},
  author={Maria Zankl and Alfred Wittmann},
  journal={Radiation and Environmental Biophysics},
Abstract This paper describes the construction of an adult male voxel model named ”Golem”1(1In Jewish tradition, Golem (Hebrew: shapeless matter) means an artificial human being endowed with life. There are several legends about successful creations of the Golem. The most popular one is probably the Golem of Prague, created (and destroyed) by Rabbi Yehuda Loev (1525–1609).) intended to be used for Monte Carlo simulations to calculate dosimetric quantities for radiation protection considerations… 
Voxel-based models representing the male and female ICRP reference adult--the skeleton.
For the forthcoming update of organ dose conversion coefficients, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) will use voxel-based computational phantoms due to their improved
The construction of three adult female voxel models, two whole-body and one from head to thighs, from computed tomographic data of 3 women of different stature are described, calculated with a Monte Carlo code.
Voxel models representing the male and female ICRP reference adult: a dosimetric tool for medical imaging
To meet the ICRP requirements, a group at the Helmholtz Zentrum München constructed voxel models of a male and female adult, based on the voxels models of two individuals whose body height and weight resembled those of the male andFemale ICRp reference adult.
GSF male and female adult voxel models representing ICRP reference man-The present status
To meet the ICRP requirements, workers at GSF constructed voxel models of a male and female adult, based on the voxels models of two individuals whose body height and weight resembled those of Reference Man, and the method used for this process is described.
Creation of two tomographic voxel models of paediatric patients in the first year of life.
Two tomographic models were created using a combination of automatic and manual segmentation via a program created in-house using IDL version 5.5, making these models the most detailed in existence for paediatric dosimetry applications.
Korean adult male voxel model KORMAN segmented from magnetic resonance images.
A voxel model of Korean adult male, KORMAN, was developed by processing whole-body magnetic resonance (MR) images of a healthy volunteer who represents an approximately average Korean in height and weight to assess the utility of the model.
Using of Automatic Slice-based Adjustment of Golem Voxel Phantom for Developingof Sudanese Voxel Phantom
An attempt to develop a tool for automatic slice-based adjustment of voxel phantoms based on anthropomorphic data extracted from anterior and lateral images for targeted body is reported.
This study describes the modifications done to the VOX_TISS8 human voxel phantom (YALE University) in order to create the MAX (Male Adult voXel) phantom whose organ and tissue masses correspond better to the data recommended by ICRP in Publications No. 23 and 70.
An image-based skeletal tissue model for the ICRP reference newborn.
A comprehensive skeletal tissue model of the ICRP reference newborn to permit a heterogeneous representation of the skeleton in that hybrid phantom set-both male and female-that explicitly includes a delineation of cortical bone so that marrow shielding effects are correctly modeled for low-energy photons incident upon the newborn skeleton.


Computerized three-dimensional segmented human anatomy.
A computerized 3-dimensional volume array modeling all major internal structures of the body has been created and can serve as a voxel-based anthropomorphic phantom suitable for many computer-based modeling and simulation calculations.
Voxel Anthropomorphic Models as a Tool for Internal Dosimetry
Detailed calculations of SAFs for monoenergetic photon sources were performed using Monte Carlo photon transport codes together with voxel anthropomorphic models based on computed tomographic data of real persons of various ages, which offer greater realism with respect to organ topology than the mathematical phantoms commonly used up to now.
Comparison of internal radiation doses estimated by MIRD and voxel techniques for a "family" of phantoms
It was shown for the majority of cases that, whereas some large differences in SAF values exist, differences in source organ and effective dose values between the MIRD and voxel methods were largely accounted for by the respective organ mass differences.
The construction of computer tomographic phantoms and their application in radiology and radiation protection
A new family of phantoms is proposed, constructed from computer tomographic (CT) data, which present advantages towards the location and shape of the organs, in particular the hard bone and bone marrow.
Calculation of Patient Doses Using a Human Voxel Phantom of Variable Diameter
The voxel phantom Golem was used for the dosimetric part of the EU research project 'Predictivity and Optimisation in Medical Radiation Protection'. A risk-related dose quantity, H Golems , was
Impact on internal doses of photon SAFs derived with the GSF adult male voxel phantom.
Overall, it is found that some tissue doses calculated using the voxel phantoms can differ significantly from those of the MIRD-type phantom; however, the effective dose appears to be quite robust to changes in photon SAFs.
Active bone marrow distribution as a function of age in humans.
  • M. Cristy
  • Medicine
    Physics in medicine and biology
  • 1981
The distribution calculated here for the adult agrees more closely with published distributions based on 59 Fe studies than do the earlier distributions.
Mathematical descriptions of a one- and five-year old child for use in dosimetry calculations
Photon absorbed fraction estimates for the pediatric phantoms from Monte-Carlo calculations were combined with biological data to estimate dose distributions in one- year old and five-year old children.
Personal dose equivalent for photons and its variation with dosimeter position.
  • M. Zankl
  • Physics, Medicine
    Health physics
  • 1999
Comparison of the values for the personal dose equivalent of this work with effective dose revealed that Hp(10) is a conservative estimate or close approximation of E for most irradiation geometries and photon energies.