The adaptive function of tiger moth clicks against echolocating bats: an experimental and synthetic approach

@article{Ratcliffe2005TheAF,
  title={The adaptive function of tiger moth clicks against echolocating bats: an experimental and synthetic approach},
  author={John M Ratcliffe and James H. Fullard},
  journal={Journal of Experimental Biology},
  year={2005},
  volume={208},
  pages={4689 - 4698}
}
SUMMARY We studied the efficiency and effects of the multiple sensory cues of tiger moths on echolocating bats. We used the northern long-eared bat, Myotis septentrionalis, a purported moth specialist that takes surface-bound prey (gleaning) and airborne prey (aerial hawking), and the dogbane tiger moth, Cycnia tenera, an eared species unpalatable to bats that possesses conspicuous colouration and sound-producing organs (tymbals). This is the first study to investigate the interaction of tiger… Expand
Adaptive auditory risk assessment in the dogbane tiger moth when pursued by bats
TLDR
C. tenera's ability to discriminate between attacking bats representing different levels of risk, and to habituate less so to those most dangerous, should function as an adaptive cost–benefit trade-off mechanism in nature. Expand
Tiger moths and the threat of bats: decision-making based on the activity of a single sensory neuron
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the activity of a single auditory neuron provides sufficient information for the toxic dogbane tiger moth, Cycnia tenera, to decide when to initiate defensive sound production in the face of bats. Expand
Convergent evolution of anti-bat sounds
TLDR
A previously unknown sound-producing organ in Geometrid moths is described—a prothoracic tymbal in the orange beggar moth (Eubaphe unicolor) that generates bursts of ultrasonic clicks in response to tactile stimulation and playback of a bat echolocation attack sequence. Expand
Naïve bats discriminate arctiid moth warning sounds but generalize their aposematic meaning
TLDR
These kinematic and bioacoustic results show that although naïve bats generalize the meaning of aposematic tiger moth calls, they discriminate the prey-generated signals as different and investigate, suggesting that acoustic predators probably exert potent and fine-scaled selective forces on acoustic mimicry complexes. Expand
Anti-bat tiger moth sounds: Form and function
TLDR
A principal components analysis of the anti-bat tiger moth sounds reveals that they vary markedly along three axes: frequency, duty cycle and frequency modulation, and modulation cycle (clicks produced during flexion and relaxation of the sound producing tymbal). Expand
How do tiger moths jam bat sonar?
TLDR
Three-dimensional simulations of the three-dimensional flight paths and echolocation behavior of big brown bats attacking B. trigona show that bats did not avoid phantom targets, and the bats' ability to track clicking prey contradicts the predictions of the masking hypothesis. Expand
Acoustic Aposematism and Evasive Action in Select Chemically Defended Arctiine (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) Species: Nonchalant or Not?
TLDR
The results show that acoustic aposematism is effective at deterring bat predation in a natural context and that this strategy is likely to be the ancestral function of tymbal organs within the Arctiinae. Expand
To Scream or to Listen? Prey Detection and Discrimination in Animal-Eating Bats
TLDR
It is now known that at least one species of bat is able to resolve echoes reflected from large insect prey from the Echoes reflected from the vegetation on which the insect is perched, because background echoes were assumed to mask those reflected from prey. Expand
Evolutionary escalation: the bat–moth arms race
TLDR
The evolutionary history of bats and eared insects, focusing on the insect order Lepidoptera, is reviewed, and the evidence for antipredator adaptations and predator counter-adaptations are considered. Expand
Aerial Warfare: Have Bats and Moths Co-evolved?
TLDR
Evidence for reciprocity and specificity in the evolution of bat traits is confounded by the fact that these traits could also have evolved as adaptation for particular habitats and tasks, and these requirements might be met by stealth echolocation, especially where these involve evolutionary trade-offs. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 87 REFERENCES
The gleaning attacks of the northern long-eared bat, Myotis septentrionalis, are relatively inaudible to moths.
TLDR
The prediction that the echolocation calls of gleaners are acoustically inconspicuous to the ears of moths, leaving the moths particularly vulnerable to predation is supported, and the suggestion that gleaners gain a foraging advantage against eared prey is suggested. Expand
Echolocation behaviour of vespertilionid bats (Lasiurus cinereus and Lasiurus borealis) attacking airborne targets including arctiid moths
TLDR
There was, however, no threshold value unambiguously separating successful from unsuccessful attacks in either species and the responses of bats to tossed pebbles and to some insects indicated that during some feeding buzzes L. borealis and L. cinereus judged the nature and range of prey being attacked. Expand
Sound strategy: acoustic aposematism in the bat–tiger moth arms race
TLDR
It is found that the bats only respond to the sounds of arctiids when they are paired with defensive chemistry, and the sounds are in essence a warning to the bats that the moth is unpalatable—an aposematic signal. Expand
The ability of the frog-eating bat to discriminate among novel and potentially poisonous frog species using acoustic cues
TLDR
Acoustic analysis of the calls suggests that discrimination was primarily based on temporal properties of the Calls, which has interesting implications for the potential of frog vocal mimicry complexes to evolve under the influence of bat predation. Expand
Diel flight periodicity and the evolution of auditory defences in the Macrolepidoptera
TLDR
Ultrasound sensitivity not only appears to protect eared moths from aerial predators (bats) but also protects them from terrestrial predators by allowing the moths to remain in the air during the night, and, it is suggested, is responsible for the success of this group of Macrolepidoptera. Expand
Behavioural flexibility: the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus, and the northern long-eared bat,M.septentrionalis , both glean and hawk prey
TLDR
It is argued that the broadband, high-frequency, downwardsweeping, frequency-modulated calls used by some bats when gleaning prey from complex surfaces resolve targets from background. Expand
The influence of arctiid moth clicks on bat echolocation; jamming or warning?
TLDR
The results suggest that the function of the garden tiger and ruby tiger clicks in nature is to warn the bat of the moth's distastefulness, and not to ‘jam’ the bat's sonar system. Expand
The use of acoustical cues for prey detection by the Indian False Vampire Bat,Megaderma lyra
TLDR
It was concluded that Megaderma lyra detects prey on the ground by listening to the noise of the moving target only, and not by echolocation, and differentiated between palatable frogs and non-palatable toads only after touching the prey with the muzzle. Expand
Constraints on optimal foraging: a field test of prey discrimination by echolocating insectivorous hats
TLDR
Results suggest that the lack of discrimination is due to the rapid flight of bats and the short prey detection range inherent in echolocation, and that laboratory findings regarding sensory capabilities must be verified under natural conditions in the field. Expand
Echolocation by Insect-Eating Bats
TLDR
This article describes the echolocation behavior of insect-eating bats and shows how differing circumstances such as habitat type, foraging mode, and diet favor different signal types, and outlines the perceptual tasks that must be performed by foraging bats. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...