The acute effects of cannabinoids on memory in humans: a review

@article{Ranganathan2006TheAE,
  title={The acute effects of cannabinoids on memory in humans: a review},
  author={Mohini Ranganathan and Deepak Cyril D’Souza},
  journal={Psychopharmacology},
  year={2006},
  volume={188},
  pages={425-444}
}
RationaleCannabis is one of the most frequently used substances. Cannabis and its constituent cannabinoids are known to impair several aspects of cognitive function, with the most robust effects on short-term episodic and working memory in humans. A large body of the work in this area occurred in the 1970s before the discovery of cannabinoid receptors. Recent advances in the knowledge of cannabinoid receptors’ function have rekindled interest in examining effects of exogenous cannabinoids on… 
Pharmacological effects of cannabinoids on the reference and working memory functions in mice
TLDR
Evidence is provided for a strain-specific effect of a dose of CP 55940 on reference memory, and while the cannabinoid agonist also impaired working memory in one strain, this effect was apparently not mediated by CB1 receptors.
Acute and Chronic Effects of Cannabinoids on Human Cognition—A Systematic Review
Clinical and Preclinical Evidence for Functional Interactions of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol
TLDR
Future cannabis-related policy decisions should include consideration of scientific findings, including the individual and interactive effects of CBD and THC, as well as other cannabinoid molecules currently being evaluated for medicinal purposes, separately and in combination.
Chronic use of cannabis and poor neural efficiency in verbal memory ability
TLDR
The results indicate that chronic users of cannabis have altered memory-related brain activation in the form of dysfunctional SME production and/or poorer neural efficiency, which is associated with deficits in memory recall.
The influence of cannabinoids on learning and memory processes of the dorsal striatum
Effects of Endocannabinoid System Modulation on Cognitive and Emotional Behavior
TLDR
Recent findings are reviewed that raise the possibility that endocannabinoid signaling may change the impact of environmental influences on emotional and cognitive behavior rather than selectively affecting any specific behavior.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) impairs encoding but not retrieval of verbal information
Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Administration on Human Encoding and Recall Memory Function: A Pharmacological fMRI Study
TLDR
The results further emphasize the eCB system as a potential novel target for treatment of memory disorders and a promising target for development of new therapies to reduce memory deficits in humans.
The chronic effects of cannabis on memory in humans: a review.
TLDR
The impact of not only specific parameters of cannabis use in the manifestation of memory dysfunction, but also such factors as age, neurodevelopmental stage, IQ, gender, various vulnerabilities and other substance-use interactions are considered, in the context of neural efficiency and compensatory mechanisms.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 155 REFERENCES
Cannabinoids and memory: animal studies.
TLDR
Experiments carried out by this group have shown that anandamide impairs memory consolidation in random bred mice (CD1), exerts genotype-dependent influences on memory in inbred strain of mice (C57 BL/6 and DBA/2), and that opioid and dopaminergic systems might be involved in its effects.
Endocannabinoids in cognition and dependence.
TLDR
Converging evidence in which performance in a variety of memory tasks is enhanced following either SR141716A treatment or in CB(1) receptor knockout mice indicates that this system may play an important role in modulating cognition.
Cannabinoids: reward, dependence, and underlying neurochemical mechanisms—a review of recent preclinical data
TLDR
The goal of this review is to examine the various animal models currently available that are being used to facilitate understanding of the rewarding and dependence-producing actions of cannabinoids, which are central to their abuse liability, and of the neurochemical mechanisms that may underlie these actions.
Functions of cannabinoid receptors in the hippocampus
Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Cannabinoids
TLDR
Properties of cannabis that might be of therapeutic use include analgesia, muscle relaxation, immunosuppression, sedation, improvement of mood, stimulation of appetite, antiemesis, lowering of intraocular pressure, bronchodilation, neuroprotection and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells.
Cognitive and subjective dose-response effects of acute oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in infrequent cannabis users
TLDR
It is demonstrated that oral Δ9-THC impairs episodic memory and learning in a dose-dependent manner whilst sparing perceptual priming and working memory.
A second endogenous cannabinoid that modulates long-term potentiation
TLDR
2-AG activates neuronal cannabinoid receptors as a full agonist, and prevents the induction of long-term potentiation at CA3–CA1 synapses, indicating that 2-AG is a second endogenous cannabinoid ligand in the central nervous system.
Cannabis: pharmacology and toxicology in animals and humans.
TLDR
The advent of highly potent analogs and a specific antagonist may make possible the development of compounds that lack undesirable side effects, thus limiting therapeutic usefulness of cannabinoid-derived drugs on the market today.
Effects of marijuana on neurophysiological signals of working and episodic memory
TLDR
The results suggest that marijuana disrupted both sustained and transient attention processes resulting in impaired memory task performance, and in subjects most affected by marijuana a pronounced ERP difference between previously studied words and new distracter words was reduced, suggesting disruption of neural mechanisms underlying memory for recent study episodes.
The Psychotomimetic Effects of Intravenous Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Healthy Individuals: Implications for Psychosis
TLDR
It is indicated that Δ-9-THC produces a broad range of transient symptoms, behaviors, and cognitive deficits in healthy individuals that resemble some aspects of endogenous psychoses and warrant further study of whether brain cannabinoid receptor function contributes to the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...