The studies were carried out on male Wistar rats subjected to running within an electric rotating drum. The animals were divided into four experimental groups, differing one from another as to the duration of training. Each training session lasted 30 days. In the first group the daily run lasted 3 min, in the second group 5 min; in the third group, a 1 min run on the first day, and one min longer on each successive day; in the fourth group a 2 min run on the first day and for two min longer on each successive day. The determinations made prior to and after training included the peripheral blood erythrocyte (Er) and reticulocyte (Ret.) count, the hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) and, determined by spectrophotometric methods, the activity of pyruvate kinase (PK), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and glutathione reductase (GR). Training induced an improvement of all enzymatic activities. The heavier the physical exertion, the more intensive was the enzymatic activity of red blood cells, due to the intensification of bone marrow erythropoetic activity under physical exertion and the appearance of young red cells in peripheral blood. All the experimental groups revealed a drop in erythrocyte count (Er), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), and hematocrit values (PCV), as well as an increase in the reticulocytes count (Ret) and in the activity of all the enzymes investigated. In the fourth group anemia was detected: prolonged endurance training decreased the RBC by 24.2%, Hb by 31.1%, PCV by 26.2% and increased the reticulocyte count by 881.6%. Pronounced loading with physical effort leads to shifts in the glucose utilization ratio along particular erythrocyte metabolic pathways. This change in enzymatic activities may prove to be one of the causes of faster elimination of old RBCs.