This review focuses on mercury speciation in the Adriatic Sea, a marginal sea of the Mediterranean, which represents its distinct biogeochemical subunit due to anthropogenic mercury loadings. The current knowledge about mercury cycling in the Adriatic is presented through an overview of the state of the art of research in this area: temporal and spatial distributions and occurrence of mercury species in seawater and sediment, and chemical transformations. We summarised research results of mercury speciation in order to describe its presence and fate in the Adriatic Sea. The Adriatic Sea represents a net source of mercury to the Mediterranean Sea due to the highest total mercury concentrations observed in the North Adriatic Sea and the highest methylmercury concentrations in the South Adriatic Pit. However, the biogeochemical cycle of mercury is not completely known and our understanding of mercury transport between compartments and its (bio)transformations is limited. Future research needs to focus on microbial and chemical processes of mercury transformations to improve our understanding of the impacts of mercury contamination on the environment and human health in the Adriatic Sea.