Myocardial Infarction in Neonates: A Review of an Entity with Significant Morbidity and Mortality
OBJECTIVE To review the surgical outcome of the Yasui operation in patients with adequate-sized ventricles and ventricular septal defect (VSD) associated with obstructions of the aortic arch and left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT). METHODS Since 1985, 17 patients have undergone the Yasui operation at our institution. Interrupted aortic arch was present in 11 patients and coarctation of the aorta/hypoplastic arch was present in 6. Twelve patients had aortic stenosis, and 5 patients had aortic atresia. The minimum diameter of the LVOT and the z-score in patients with aortic stenosis were 3.7 ± 0.4 mm and -9.2 ± 1.2, respectively. Primary repair was performed in 6 patients, and 11 patients were staged, with bilateral pulmonary artery banding (PAB) in 8, arch repair with PAB in 2 and Norwood operation in 1. The mean age and body weight at the time of the Yasui operation was 4.7 ± 5.3 months and 4.5 ± 1.8 kg, respectively. The ascending aorta and aortic arch were reconstructed by Damus-Kaye-Stansel (DKS) anastomosis with graft interposition in 2, DKS with direct anastomosis in 6 and Norwood-type reconstruction in 9. VSD was enlarged in 6 patients. Right ventricle to pulmonary artery continuity was established with a valved conduit in 14 patients, the Lecompte manoeuvre in 2 patients and another method in 1 patient. The mean duration of the follow-up was 7.6 ± 9.2 years. RESULTS There was 1 early death due to myocardial infarction and 1 late death due to non-cardiac cause. The actuarial survival at 10 years was 87.8%. Six patients underwent reoperation, including 5 conduit exchanges, 2 LVOT repairs and 2 aortic arch repairs. The freedom from reoperation for all causes at 5 and 10 years were 71.3 and 28.5%, respectively. In the last echo study, LVOT flow velocity was 1.2 ± 0.8 m/s, and neoaortic valve regurgitation was mild in 1 patient and trivial or absent in the remaining patients. CONCLUSIONS The results of the Yasui operation were excellent, showing low mortality and good mid-term left ventricular function without outflow tract stenosis or neoaortic valve insufficiency. Bilateral PAB as initial palliation is a useful option in symptomatic neonates.