BACKGROUND The aim was to compare the efficacy of the passive ultrasonic irrigation PUI and the Xp-endo Finisher (FKG-Dentaire, La-Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) in removing the calcium hydroxide paste from root canals and from the apical third. MATERIAL AND METHODS Sixty-eight root canals of single-rooted teeth were shaped using the BT-Race files (FKG-Dentaire, La-Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland). Ca(OH)2 was placed in all samples except for the negative control group (n=4). Remaining teeth were randomly divided into three groups: G1-Xp (n=30), G2-PUI (n=30) and the positive control group (n=4). Removal procedure consisted of three repeated one-minute-cycles. Samples were split longitudinally, photos of halves were taken at X6.4 magnification and were analyzed using the ImageJ-Software (The National Institutes of Health NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA) to calculate the percentage of surfaces with residual Ca(OH)2; the results were compared using the Wilcoxon-Mann Whitney test. Photos of the apical thirds were taken at X16 and X40 magnifications and were scored by two examiners from (0) to (4). Scores of the apical third were compared using the Fisher test. RESULTS The Xp-endo Finisher removed completely the Ca(OH)2 dressing from four teeth (13.33%) whereas the PUI in one tooth (3.33%). The mean values of the remaining Ca(OH)2 were (2.1%, 3.6%) respectively and the difference was not significant (p= 0.195). Both examiners found the Xp-endo Finisher more efficient in the apical third and the difference was significant; p= (0.025, 0.047) respectively. CONCLUSIONS The Xp-endo Finisher showed a superiority over the PUI in removing the Ca(OH)2 from the apical third after 3 minutes of activation. Key words:Calcium hydroxide removal, Passive ultrasonic irrigation, Xp-endo Finisher.