The Wick in the Candle of Learning

  title={The Wick in the Candle of Learning},
  author={Min Jeong Kang and Ming Hsu and Ian Krajbich and George Loewenstein and Samuel M. McClure and Joseph Tao-yi Wang and Colin Camerer},
  journal={Psychological Science},
  pages={963 - 973}
Curiosity has been described as a desire for learning and knowledge, but its underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We scanned subjects with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they read trivia questions. The level of curiosity when reading questions was correlated with activity in caudate regions previously suggested to be involved in anticipated reward. This finding led to a behavioral study, which showed that subjects spent more scarce resources (either limited tokens or… 
Systems neuroscience of curiosity
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Curiosity-driven memory enhancement persists over time but does not benefit from post-learning sleep
This study suggests that curiosity may be a learning factor that is not subsequently affected by sleep-dependent memory consolidation, but more work ought to examine the role of sleep on curiosity-driven memory in other contexts.
Motivation to Learn.
Performance on a memory test 1 week later suggested that curiosity enhanced long-term retention, and that rewards did not undermine the benefit of curiosity.
Lighting the wick in the candle of learning: generating a prediction stimulates curiosity
It is suggested that generating a prediction stimulates curiosity by increasing the relevance of the knowledge gap, and higher curiosity was associated with larger pupil dilation during anticipation of the correct answer.
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Findings show that elderly individuals benefit from the memory-enhancing effects of curiosity, which may lead to the implementation of learning strategies that target and stimulate curiosity in aging.
The neuroeconomics of epistemic curiosity
Curiosity and surprise enhance memory differently in adolescents than in children
Curiosity - broadly defined as the desire to acquire new information – enhances learning and memory in adults. Surprise about information facilitates later memory as well. To date, it is not known
Memory's reflection of learned information value increases across development.
Results from two experiments suggest that the use of past experience to prioritize memory for high-value information strengthens with increasing age and is supported by the developing ability to derive explicit knowledge of the structure of the environment from experience.


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Understanding Overbidding: Using the Neural Circuitry of Reward to Design Economic Auctions
By combining neuroeconomic and behavioral economic techniques, it is found that another factor, namely loss contemplation in a social context, may mediate overbidding in auctions.
Induced mood and curiosity
It has been suggested that a decline in curiosity is one characteristic manifested by depressed individuals. However, no experimental research has examined the relationship between depression and
Spatial attention and memory versus motor preparation: premotor cortex involvement as revealed by fMRI.
fMRI results indicate that the brain networks underlying the two functional domains overlap in the caudate nucleus and presupplementary motor area, and possibly in lateral prefrontal cortex as well, but involve different dorsal premotor fields.
Making memories: brain activity that predicts how well visual experience will be remembered.
Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify specific brain activations that differentiated between visual experiences that were later remembered well, remembered less well, or forgotten.
Choosing between Small, Likely Rewards and Large, Unlikely Rewards Activates Inferior and Orbital Prefrontal Cortex
The results suggest that decision making recruits neural activity from multiple regions of the inferior PFC that receive information from a diverse set of cortical and limbic inputs, and that the contribution of the orbitofrontal regions may involve processing changes in reward-related information.
Predictability Modulates Human Brain Response to Reward
For pleasurable stimuli, these findings suggest that predictability modulates the response of human reward regions, and subjective preference can be dissociated from this response.
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The dorsal striatum is implicates as an integral component of a reward circuitry responsible for the control of motivated behavior, serving to code for such feedback properties as valence and magnitude.