The Viking Biological Investigation: Preliminary Results

@article{Klein1976TheVB,
  title={The Viking Biological Investigation: Preliminary Results},
  author={Harold P. Klein and Norman H. Horowitz and Gilbert V. Levin and Vance I. Oyama and Joshua Lederberg and Alexander Rich and Jerry S. Hubbard and George L. Hobby and Patricia Ann Straat and Bonnie J. Berdahl and Glenn C. Carle and Frederick S. Brown and Richard D. Johnson},
  journal={Science},
  year={1976},
  volume={194},
  pages={105 - 99}
}
Three different types of biological experiments on samples of martian surface material ("soil") were conducted inside the Viking lander. In the carbon assimilation or pyrolytic release experiment, 14CO2 and 14CO were exposed to soil in the presence of light. A small amount of gas was found to be converted into organic material. Heat treatment of a duplicate sample prevented such conversion. In the gas exchange experiment, soil was first humidified (exposed to water vapor) for 6 sols and then… 

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