The Viking Biological Investigation: Preliminary Results

@article{Klein1976TheVB,
  title={The Viking Biological Investigation: Preliminary Results},
  author={Harold P. Klein and Norman H. Horowitz and Gilbert V. Levin and Vance I. Oyama and Joshua Lederberg and A Rich and Jerry S. Hubbard and George L. Hobby and Patricia Ann Straat and Bonnie J. Berdahl and Glenn C. Carle and Frederick S. Brown and R. D. Johnson},
  journal={Science},
  year={1976},
  volume={194},
  pages={105 - 99}
}
Three different types of biological experiments on samples of martian surface material ("soil") were conducted inside the Viking lander. In the carbon assimilation or pyrolytic release experiment, 14CO2 and 14CO were exposed to soil in the presence of light. A small amount of gas was found to be converted into organic material. Heat treatment of a duplicate sample prevented such conversion. In the gas exchange experiment, soil was first humidified (exposed to water vapor) for 6 sols and then… Expand
The Viking Gas Exchange Experiment results from Chryse and Utopia surface samples
Immediate gas changes occurred when untreated Martian surface samples were humidified and/or wet by an aqueous nutrient medium in the Viking lander gas exchange experiment. The evolutions of N2, CO2,Expand
ON THE POSSIBILITY OF LIFE ON MARS
The laboratory research carried out with Martian soil analogues shows that the most probable source of positive data obtained by the Viking stations is chemical reactions of nutrient compound decayExpand
Chemical model for Viking biology experiments: implications for the composition of the martian regolith
THE 1976 Mars Viking biology experiments were designed to detect life by observing the products of biochemical reactions. In the labelled-release (LR) experiments1–4, about 25 nmol of 14C-labelledExpand
Simulations of the Viking Gas Exchange Experiment using palagonite and Fe-rich montmorillonite as terrestrial analogs: implications for the surface composition of Mars.
TLDR
Simulations of the Gas Exchange Experiment (GEX), one of the Viking Lander Biology Experiments, were run using palagonite and Fe-rich montmorillonite as terrestrial analogs of the Martian soil; acidic components may be present, but the overall mixture must be basic in order to simulate the Viking GEX results. Expand
Model of the fine-grain component of martian soil based on Viking lander data
The value of the sorbtional specific surface of the martian soil (from CO2 evolution in GEX (gas exchange experiments) of Viking craft) is more than an order of magnitude greater than the value ofExpand
Carbonate formation in Marslike environments
Carbonate growth was examined within rock powders subjected to Marslike environmental simulations. Rates of growth under experimental conditions were 1012–1013 molecules cm−3 s−1 with or without anExpand
The chemical activities of the Viking biology experiments and the arguments for the presence of superoxides, peroxides, gamma-Fe2O3 and carbon suboxide polymer in the Martian soil.
TLDR
From the working model, the peculiar nature of the chemical entities is predicted and it is demonstrated that the model is justified by laboratory data. Expand
Organics on Mars
Abstract Organics are expected to exist on Mars based on meteorite infall, in situ production, and any possible biological sources. Yet they have not been detected on the martian surface; are theyExpand
Organics on Mars?
TLDR
A primary focus of the upcoming Mars Science Laboratory will be the detection and identification of organic molecules by means of thermal volatilization, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry--as was done on Viking. Expand
Viking on Mars: The carbon assimilation experiments
A fixation of atmospheric carbon, presumably into organic form, occurs in Martian surface material under conditions approximating the actual Martian ones. The reaction showed the followingExpand
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