The Ventriloquist Effect Results from Near-Optimal Bimodal Integration

  title={The Ventriloquist Effect Results from Near-Optimal Bimodal Integration},
  author={David Alais and David Charles Burr},
  journal={Current Biology},

Figures from this paper

Ventriloquism effect with sound stimuli varying in both azimuth and elevation.
Results showed that ventriloquism could be observed with larger audiovisual disparities in elevation than in azimuth, and this effect has been extensively examined in the horizontal plane and to a lesser extent in distance.
Auditory dominance over vision in the perception of interval duration
It is confirmed that sound does tend to dominate the perceived timing of audio-visual stimuli, and the dominance was predicted qualitatively by considering the better temporal localization of audition, but the quantitative fit was less than perfect.
Does the ventriloquist illusion assist selective listening?
It is concluded that the ventriloquist illusion is necessary to confer the advantage for selective listening from displaced lip movements but that the phenomenon is a fleeting one at best.
The Ventriloquist Illusion as a Tool to Study Multisensory Processing: An Update
  • P. Bruns
  • Psychology, Biology
    Front. Integr. Neurosci.
  • 2019
How the ventriloquism effect and aftereffect could be utilized to address some of the current open questions in the field of multisensory research is pointed out.
Ventriloquism effect and aftereffect in the distance dimension
When an auditory target is presented simultaneously with a spatially displaced visual target, the perceived auditory target location shifts toward the visual target. This effect, known as the
Frequency transfer of the ventriloquism aftereffect
The ventriloquism aftereffect generalizes, implying that it does not act at an early auditory stage, but at a late multisensory stage, and is correlated with the pre-adaptation sound-localization performance.
Neural Basis of the Ventriloquist Illusion
Fusion of Visual and Auditory Stimuli during Saccades: A Bayesian Explanation for Perisaccadic Distortions
Both the perceived position of the bimodal stimuli and the improved precision were well predicted by assuming statistically optimal Bayesian-like combination of visual and auditory signals, and the time course of localization was well predicting by the Bayesian approach.
Reference Frame of the Ventriloquism Aftereffect
Testing which reference frame (RF) is used when vision recalibrates perceived sound locations indicates that both humans and monkeys use a mixture of the two RFs, suggesting that the neural mechanisms involved in ventriloquism occur in brain region(s) using a hybrid RF for encoding spatial information.
Optimal Audiovisual Integration in the Ventriloquism Effect But Pervasive Deficits in Unisensory Spatial Localization in Amblyopia.
Spatial localization precision was significantly reduced in the amblyopia group compared with the control group for unimodal visual, unimmodal auditory, and bimodal stimuli, but audiovisual integration remains intact and optimal in unilateral amblyopian.


The ventriloquist effect does not depend on the direction of deliberate visual attention
It is concluded that ventriloquism largely reflects automatic sensory interactions, with little or no role for deliberate spatial attention.
Attracting attention to the illusory location of a sound: reflexive crossmodal orienting and ventriloquism
This study reports an important exception to this rule; auditory attention can be drawn to the location of a visual cue when it is paired with a concurrent unlocalizable sound, to produce ventriloquism.
Auditory capture of vision: examining temporal ventriloquism.
No direction-specific bimodal facilitation for audiovisual motion detection.
The role of visual-auditory “compellingness” in the ventriloquism effect: Implications for transitivity among the spatial senses
The results support the model for intersensory interaction proposed by Welch and Warren (1980) with respect to the susceptibility of intersensor bias effects to several independent variables and a new means of assessing inters Sensory bias effects by the use of spatial separation threshold was demonstrated.
Visual illusion induced by sound.
The After-Effects of Ventriloquism
It is concluded that the resolution of auditory-visual spatial conflict involves recalibrations of both visual and auditory data and that these alterations last long enough to be detected as after-effects.
Fast Temporal Dynamics of Visual Cue Integration
A probabilistic model with temporal dynamics that accounts for the observed effect of cue integration is proposed and suggests that cue integration can exhibit adaptive phenomena on a very fast time scale.
Bayesian integration of visual and auditory signals for spatial localization.
This work evaluated two theories of spatial localization that predict how visual and auditory information are weighted when these signals specify different locations in space, and indicates that both theories are partially correct.