The Value of Producing Food, Energy, and Ecosystem Services within an Agro-Ecosystem

  title={The Value of Producing Food, Energy, and Ecosystem Services within an Agro-Ecosystem},
  author={John R. Porter and Robert Costanza and Harpinder Sandhu and Lene Sigsgaard and Stephen D. Wratten},
Abstract Agricultural ecosystems produce food, fiber, and nonmarketed ecosystem services (ES). Agriculture also typically involves high negative external costs associated with, for example, fossil fuel use. We estimated, via field-scale ecological monitoring and economic value-transfer methods, the market and nonmarket ES value of a combined food and energy (CFE) agro-ecosystem that simultaneously produces food, fodder, and bioenergy. Such novel CFE agro-ecosystems can provide a significantly… 

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