The Value of Applied Research: Retrieval Practice Improves Classroom Learning and Recommendations from a Teacher, a Principal, and a Scientist

  title={The Value of Applied Research: Retrieval Practice Improves Classroom Learning and Recommendations from a Teacher, a Principal, and a Scientist},
  author={Pooja K. Agarwal and Patrice M. Bain and Roger Chamberlain},
  journal={Educational Psychology Review},
Over the course of a 5-year applied research project with more than 1,400 middle school students, evidence from a number of studies revealed that retrieval practice in authentic classroom settings improves long-term learning (Agarwal et al.2009; McDaniel et al., Journal of Educational Psychology 103:399–414, 2011; McDaniel et al.2012; Roediger et al., Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 17:382–395, 2011a). Retrieval practice, or the use of quizzes and exams to engage and enhance… 
Retrieval Practice Consistently Benefits Student Learning: a Systematic Review of Applied Research in Schools and Classrooms
Given the growing interest in retrieval practice among educators, it is valuable to know when retrieval practice does and does not improve student learning—particularly for educators who have limited
A Classroom Study on the Role of Prior Knowledge and Retrieval Tool in the Testing Effect
This quasi-experimental study investigated the role of prior psychology knowledge and in-class retrieval activity in the testing effect. Undergraduate introductory psychology students (N = 53) from
Using Retrieval Practice and Metacognitive Skills to Improve Content Learning
Classroom tests have been traditionally used to assess student growth and content mastery. However, a wealth of research in cognitive and educational psychology has demonstrated that retrieval
Improving students’ summative knowledge of introductory chemistry through the forward testing effect: examining the role of retrieval practice quizzing
Building domain knowledge is essential to a student's success in any course. Chemistry, similar to other STEM disciplines, has a strong cumulative element (i.e., topic areas continuously build upon
A Case Study of Using Test-Enhanced Learning as a Formative Assessment in High School Mathematics
Retrieving information from memory can—under many circumstances—strengthen one’s memory of the retrieved information itself. The strategic use of retrieval to enhance memory and help long-term
Retrieval Practice & Bloom’s Taxonomy: Do Students Need Fact Knowledge Before Higher Order Learning?
  • P. Agarwal
  • Education
    Journal of Educational Psychology
  • 2019
The development of students’ higher order learning is a critical component of education. For decades, educators and scientists have engaged in an ongoing debate about whether higher order learning
Improving retention by placing retrieval practice at the end of class: a naturalistic study
Attempting to recall previously encountered information by being tested or quizzed (retrieval practice: RP) enhances memory. In real classrooms, however, it is unclear when testing should take place
Transfer of Test-Enhanced Learning: Meta-Analytic Review and Synthesis
The findings of the first comprehensive meta-analytic review into testing yield learning that transfers to different contexts motivate a three-factor framework for transfer of test-enhanced learning and have practical implications for the effective use of practice testing in educational and other training contexts.


Retrieval-Based Learning: A Perspective for Enhancing Meaningful Learning
The case is made that retrieval is the key process for understanding and for promoting learning, and two approaches to addressing this problem are described: classroom quizzing and a computer-based learning program that guides students to practice retrieval.
Test-Enhanced Learning in a Middle School Science Classroom: The Effects of Quiz Frequency and Placement.
Typically, teachers use tests to evaluate students’ knowledge acquisition. In a novel experimental study, we examined whether low-stakes testing (quizzing) can be used to foster students’ learning of
Metacognitive strategies in student learning: Do students practise retrieval when they study on their own?
It is proposed that many students experience illusions of competence while studying and that these illusions have significant consequences for the strategies students select when they monitor and regulate their own learning.
Test-enhanced learning in the classroom: long-term improvements from quizzing.
Three experiments examined whether quizzing promotes learning and retention of material from a social studies course with sixth grade students from a suburban middle school and found that quizzing of material produced a positive effect on chapter and semester exams.
When Is Practice Testing Most Effective for Improving the Durability and Efficiency of Student Learning?
Although summative testing is often maligned within educational communities, practice testing is one of the most well-established strategies for improving student learning. Despite the wealth of
Using Spacing to Enhance Diverse Forms of Learning: Review of Recent Research and Implications for Instruction
Every day, students and instructors are faced with the decision of when to study information. The timing of study, and how it affects memory retention, has been explored for many years in research on
Repeated testing produces superior transfer of learning relative to repeated studying.
  • A. C. Butler
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 2010
Repeated testing produced superior retention and transfer on the final test relative to repeated studying, indicating that the mnemonic benefits of test-enhanced learning are not limited to the retention of the specific response tested during initial learning but rather extend to the transfer of knowledge in a variety of contexts.
Correcting a metacognitive error: feedback increases retention of low-confidence correct responses.
It is shown that when correct responses are made with low confidence, feedback serves to correct this initial metacognitive error, enhancing retention of low-confidence correct responses.
Benefits of testing memory: Best practices and boundary conditions.