The Use of Xanthan Gum as Vaccine Adjuvant: An Evaluation of Immunostimulatory Potential in BALB/c Mice and Cytotoxicity In Vitro

Abstract

The successful production of new, safe, and effective vaccines that generate immunological memory is directly related to adjuvant feature, which is responsible for increasing and/or modulating the immune response. Several compounds display adjuvant activity, including carbohydrates. These compounds play important roles in the immune response, as well as having biocompatible properties in vaccine formulations. One such carbohydrate is xanthan gum, a polysaccharide that is produced by the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas spp., which has adjuvant attributes. This study evaluated the immune response induced by xanthan gum associated with ovalbumin in BALB/c mice, which were subcutaneously immunized, in terms of antibody production (IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3), and assessed the levels of IFN-γ in the splenocyte culture using indirect ELISA. Furthermore, we investigated in vitro cytotoxicity of xanthan in the embryo fibroblasts cell line of the NIH/3T3 mouse by MTT assay and propidium iodide uptake assay. The mice immunized with ovalbumin plus xanthan gum exhibited higher antibody IgG1 responses than control groups. Furthermore, the xanthan polysaccharide was capable of increasing the immunogenicity of antigens by producing IFN-γ and did not exhibit cytotoxicity effects in NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblast cells, considered a promising candidate for vaccine adjuvant.

DOI: 10.1155/2017/3925024

5 Figures and Tables

Cite this paper

@inproceedings{Schuch2017TheUO, title={The Use of Xanthan Gum as Vaccine Adjuvant: An Evaluation of Immunostimulatory Potential in BALB/c Mice and Cytotoxicity In Vitro}, author={Rodrigo Andrade Schuch and Tha{\'i}s Larr{\'e} Oliveira and Tha{\'i}s Farias Collares and Leonardo Garcia Monte and Guilherme Roig Inda and Odir Antonio Dellagostin and Claire Tondo Vendruscolo and Angelita da Silveira Moreira and Daiane Drawanz Hartwig}, booktitle={BioMed research international}, year={2017} }