The Use of Transit Timing to Detect Terrestrial-Mass Extrasolar Planets

  title={The Use of Transit Timing to Detect Terrestrial-Mass Extrasolar Planets},
  author={Matthew J. Holman and Norman W. Murray},
  pages={1288 - 1291}
Future surveys for transiting extrasolar planets are expected to detect hundreds of jovian-mass planets and tens of terrestrial-mass planets. For many of these newly discovered planets, the intervals between successive transits will be measured with an accuracy of 0.1 to 100 minutes. We show that these timing measurements will allow for the detection of additional planets in the system (not necessarily transiting) by their gravitational interaction with the transiting planet. The transit-time… 

Transits in Multiple Planet Systems

Surveys for transiting extrasolar planets, including the space-based missions CoRoT and Kepler, are expected to detect hundreds of Jovian mass planets and tens of terrestrial mass planets. For many

A limit on the presence of Earth-mass planets around a Sun-like star

We present a combined analysis of all publicly available visible Hubble Space Telescope observations of transits of the planet HD 209458b. We derive the times of transit, planet radius, inclination,

The Detection and Characterization of a Nontransiting Planet by Transit Timing Variations

A planetary system with two confirmed planets and one candidate planet discovered with the publicly available data for KOI-872, reminiscent of the orderly arrangement within the solar system, with nearly coplanar and circular orbits.

Using long-term transit timing to detect terrestrial planets

ABSTRACT We propose that the presence of additional planets in extrasolar planetary systemscan be detected by long-term transit timing studies. If a transiting planet is on aneccentric orbit then the

Observed Properties of Extrasolar Planets

The most common class of planetary system detectable today consists of one or more planets approximately one to three times Earth’s size orbiting within a fraction of the Earth-Sun distance.

A new planet in the Kepler-159 system from transit timing variations

  • C. FoxP. Wiegert
  • Physics, Geology
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • 2018
The Kepler Space Telescope has discovered thousands of planets via the transit method. The transit timing variations of these planets allows us not only to infer the existence of other planets,

The mass of the Mars-sized exoplanet Kepler-138 b from transit timing

The sizes and masses of three planets orbiting Kepler-138, a star much fainter and cooler than the Sun, are reported, determining that the mass of the Mars-sized inner planet, Kepler- 138 b, is Earth masses and its density is grams per cubic centimetre.

Characterizing the Eccentricities of Transiting Extrasolar Planets with Kepler and CoRoT

  • E. FordK. Colón
  • Physics, Geology
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
  • 2008
Abstract Radial velocity planet searches have revealed that many giant planets have large eccentricities, in striking contrast with the giant planets in the solar system and prior theories of planet

Planetary transit timing variations induced by stellar binarity: the light travel time effect

Context. Since the discovery of the first transiting extrasolar planet, transit timing has been recognized as a powerful method to discover and characterize additional planets in these systems.


We develop an analytic model for transit timing variations produced by orbital conjunctions between gravitationally interacting planets. If the planetary orbits have tight orbital spacing, which is a



Orbital Perturbations of Transiting Planets: A Possible Method to Measure Stellar Quadrupoles and to Detect Earth-Mass Planets

The recent discovery of a planetary transit in the star HD 209458, and the subsequent highly precise observation of the transit light curve with Hubble Space Telescope, is encouraging to search for

On the Radii of Extrasolar Giant Planets

We have computed evolutionary models for extrasolar planets that range in mass from 0.1MJ to 3.0MJ and that range in equilibrium temperature from 113 to 2000 K. We present four sequences of models,

Detection of Planetary Transits Across a Sun-like Star

High-precision, high-cadence photometric measurements of the star HD 209458 are reported, which is known from radial velocity measurements to have a planetary-mass companion in a close orbit and the detailed shape of the transit curve due to both the limb darkening of thestar and the finite size of the planet is clearly evident.

Short-Term Dynamical Interactions among Extrasolar Planets

We show that short-term perturbations among massive planets in multiple planet systems can result in radial velocity variations of the central star that differ substantially from velocity variations

Detection of a Neptune-Mass Planet in the ρ1 Cancri System Using the Hobby-Eberly Telescope

We report the detection of the lowest mass extrasolar planet yet found around a Sun-like star—a planet with an M sin i of only 14.21 ± 2.91 M⊕ in an extremely short period orbit (P = 2.808 days)

Making the Terrestrial Planets: N-Body Integrations of Planetary Embryos in Three Dimensions

We simulate the late stages of terrestrial-planet formation using N-body integrations, in three dimensions, of disks of up to 56 initially isolated, nearly coplanar planetary embryos, plus Jupiter

A Transiting “51 Peg-like” Planet

Doppler measurements from Keck exhibit a sinusoidal periodicity in the velocities of the G0 dwarf HD 209458, having a semiamplitude of 81 m s-1 and a period of 3.5239 days, which is indicative of a

A planetary system around the millisecond pulsar PSR1257 + 12

MILLISECOND radio pulsars, which are old (∼109yr), rapidly rotating neutron stars believed to be spun up by accretion of matter from their stellar companions, are usually found in binary systems with

The New Transiting Planet OGLE-TR-56b: Orbit and Atmosphere

Motivated by the identification of the very close-in extrasolar giant planet OGLE-TR-56b (P = 1.2 days, a = 0.023 AU, Mp = 0.9MJ), we explore implications of its existence for problems of tidal

The Kepler mission: a wide-field-of-view photometer designed to determine the frequency of Earth-size planets around solar-like stars

NASA's Kepler Mission is designed to determine the frequency of Earth-size and larger planets in the habitable zone of solar-like stars. It uses transit photometry from space to determine planet size