The Use of Fetal Bovine Serum: Ethical or Scientific Problem?

@article{Jochems2002TheUO,
  title={The Use of Fetal Bovine Serum: Ethical or Scientific Problem?},
  author={Carlo E A Jochems and Jan B.F. van der Valk and Frans R. Stafleu and Vera Baumans},
  journal={Alternatives to Laboratory Animals},
  year={2002},
  volume={30},
  pages={219 - 227}
}
Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is a common component of animal cell culture media. It is harvested from bovine fetuses taken from pregnant cows during slaughter. FBS is commonly harvested by means of a cardiac puncture without any form of anaesthesia. Fetuses are probably exposed to pain and/or discomfort, so the current practice of fetal blood harvesting is inhumane. Apart from moral concerns, several scientific and technical problems exist with regard to the use of FBS in cell culture. Efforts… 
The humane collection of fetal bovine serum and possibilities for serum-free cell and tissue culture.
Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS): Past - Present - Future.
TLDR
Releasates of activated human donor thrombocytes (human platelet lysates) have been shown to be one of the most promising serum alternatives when chemically-defined media are not yet an option.
Human Umbilical Cord Blood Serum, a Better Alternative of Fetal Bovine Serum
TLDR
This study proves that CBS can be a better alternative to FBS as it accelerates the proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells as well as HeLa cells and also helps the cells to adhere better CBS, which has a great potential to be used for cell culture.
Alternatives to the use of fetal bovine serum: human platelet lysates as a serum substitute in cell culture media.
TLDR
Growth experiments, viability assays, and platelet lysate-induced activation of ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase revealed platelets lysates as a valuable alternative to FBS in cell culture media.
Report of the Workshop on Fetal Bovine Serum Replacement in Cell Cultures
TLDR
Moral concerns stem from the harvesting of FBS, causing possible pain and/or suffering in the bovine fetus, taking into account the resistance of the fetus to anoxia, and scientific concern arises because FBS is undefined, with a variable composition, leading to batch–batch variation in the medium and the risk of contamination by viruses, bacteria and prions.
Cord Blood Serum Can Be Used As an Alternative to Fetal Bovine Serum
TLDR
It is concluded that stem cell culture medium can be supplemented with CBS as an alternative to FBS.
Alternatives to the use of fetal bovine serum: serum-free cell culture.
TLDR
In order to decrease the annual need for bovine fetuses in terms of the 3Rs through any reduction in the use or partial replacement of serum, serum-free cell culture represents a modern, valuable and scientifically well accepted alternative to the use of FBS in cell and tissue culture.
Comparison of efficacies of fetal bovine sera from different suppliers in cell culture experiments
TLDR
Comparison of ARI-FBS with commercial FBS showed that both of them were expedient and reliable for use in culture studies, however, significant differences in growth rates of different cell lines were observed between them.
A plea to reduce or replace fetal bovine serum in cell culture media
To the Editor,Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is a universal growthsupplement of cell and tissue culture media. FBS is anatural cocktail of most of the factors required for cellattachment, growth, and
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 107 REFERENCES
Viral contamination of fetal bovine serum used for tissue culture: risks and concerns.
Four viral contaminants have been routinely detected in unprocessed and commercial lots of fetal bovine serum: bacteriophage, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3 and bovine viral
Fetal Bovine Serum: A Multivariate Standard 1
  • K. Honn, J. Singley, W. Chavin
  • Biology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine
  • 1975
Summary Chemical and endocrine parameters were investigated in commercially available fetal bovine sera intended for use as culture media supplements. A high degree of serum variability was present
[Cultivation of a permanent fish cell line in serum-free media special experiences with a cytotoxicity test for waste water samples]
TLDR
On the determination of the cytotoxicity of industrial waste waters the RTG-2 cells adapted to the BMS medium indicated a clearly higher toxicity of the waste water samples than the original RTG -2 cells, confirming the thesis that serum components react with waste water elements and thus change the bio-availability of toxic compounds.
Development of serum-free media for the culture and transfer of human blastocysts.
TLDR
It has now been shown in human IVF that sequential serum-free media can support > 50% blastocyst development, with an implantation rate per blastocysts of 50%, double that obtained for cleavage stage embryos.
A New Potential Threat in Antigen and Antibody Products: Nanobacteria
TLDR
The discovery of a new bacterium from mammalian blood and blood products is described, tentatively named as Nano-bacterium sanguineum gen. et sp.
One or more serum factors promote peptide utilization in cultured animal cells.
TLDR
It is concluded that animal sera contain one or more factors that regulate utilization of peptides as amino acid sources for C2C12 and MAC-T cells.
Fetal bovine serum alternatives
With the current shortage in fetal bovine serum, researchers are turning to a variety of options for cell and tissue culture.
Endogenous thymidine and hypoxanthine are a source of error in evaluating methotrexate cytotoxicity by clonogenic assays using undialyzed fetal bovine serum.
TLDR
For a proper evaluation of MTX cytotoxicity in clonogenic assays, dialyzed FBS and thymidine-less media should be employed; if native FBS is an absolute requirement for growth, only very large colonies (at least 10 cell divisions) should be scored.
The brain of the asphyxiated fetus--basic research.
  • A. Jensen
  • Medicine
    European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • 1996
The presence of transcription factors in fetal bovine sera
TLDR
The results indicated the presence of varying amounts of several transcription factors in three commercial sources and may represent heretofore unrecognized factors influencing cell culture.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...