The Urinary Disposition of Intravenously Administered 11-Nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Humans

  title={The Urinary Disposition of Intravenously Administered 11-Nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Humans},
  author={Lisa Dietz and A Glaz-Sandberg and Hang T Nguyen and Gisela Skopp and Gerd Mikus and Rolf Aderjan},
  journal={Therapeutic Drug Monitoring},
The objective of this study was to investigate the fraction of an administered dose of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) that is actually excreted into urine and to determine its urinary half-life independent of the parent compound. Ten healthy, male marijuana nonusers who were enrolled in the study were administered a single dose of 5 mg THCCOOH by the intravenous route. Urine specimens were collected up to 96 hours after administration. Samples were extracted before and… 

Disposition and enterohepatic circulation of intravenously administered 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in serum and urine in healthy human subjects

In both blood and urine, detection of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydro-cannabinol (THC-COOH) is most appropriate considering its long half-life.

Tetrahydrocannabinol in Serum and Urine in Healthy Human

Taking of remedies impairing enterohepatic circulation while/after smoking of THC may as well affect THC-COOH or its glucuronide concentrations in serum and urine, impair renal excretion and decrease their time window of detection.

Minimal Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model of Intravenously and Orally Administered Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Healthy Volunteers

The pharmacokinetics of THC and its major metabolites are characterized in healthy volunteers with known CYP2C9 status by non-compartmental analysis, compartmental modeling and minimal physiologically based pharmacokinetic (mPBPK) modeling to partially disentangle the complexity of cannabis disposition in humans.

Development and validation of a method for 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol quantification using gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry

This paper presents a method for 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocanabinol (THC-COOH) quantification from urine samples, for doping control purposes. The method involves gas chromatography coupled

Cannabinoid concentrations in spot serum samples 24-48 hours after discontinuation of cannabis smoking.

The present findings appear to indicate that low levels of THC, or of THC along with OH-THC, may not unequivocally prove a very recent use of cannabis.

Urinary cannabinoid disposition in occasional and frequent smokers: is THC-glucuronide in sequential urine samples a marker of recent use in frequent smokers?

These controlled urinary cannabinoid data provide a possible means of identifying recent cannabis intake in cannabis smokers' urine within a short collection time frame after smoking.

Direct quantification of cannabinoids and cannabinoid glucuronides in whole blood by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

The first method for quantifying cannabinoids and cannabinoid glucuronides in whole blood by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) was developed and validated and should be useful for quantify cannabinoids in wholeBlood and further investigating cannabinoid glucurides as markers of recent cannabis intake.

New catalytic ultrasound method for derivatization of 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in urine, with analysis by GC-MS/MS

The use of imidazole as a catalyst, together with ultrasonication, reduced the reaction time to 5 min and increased the efficiency of derivatization of THCCOOH, compared with the conventional method.

Oral fluid cannabinoids in chronic, daily Cannabis smokers during sustained, monitored abstinence.

Inclusion of multiple cannabinoid cutoffs accounted for residual cannabinoid excretion in OF from chronic, daily cannabis smokers and could reduce the potential for positive test results from passive cannabis smoke exposure and lead to greatly improved test interpretation.



Urinary excretion half-life of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans.

The excretion of marijuana metabolites occurs over an extended period of time, yet few studies have been designed for accurate estimation of excretion half-lives, and a sensitive analytical method and a prolonged specimen collection period are important study considerations in the monitoring of marijuana excretion.

Urinary excretion of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinoids in frequent and infrequent drug users.

Monitoring of urinary excretion of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinoids in prison inmates found increases in urinary cannabinoids were sometimes found without concomitant increase in THCCOOH or TH CCOOH/C, and considerable variations between consecutive specimens were also observed.

Urinary Pharmacokinetics of 11-Nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol after Controlled Oral Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Administration

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to monitor the excretion of total 11-nor-9-carboxy-A%tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) in 4381 urine voids collected from seven participants throughout a controlled clinical study of multiple oral doses of THC.

Stability of 11-nor-delta(9)-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol glucuronide in plasma and urine assessed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

The in vitro degradation of THCCOOglu prevents clinical conclusions based on the metabolite pattern or the concentration of unconjugated ThCCOOH in samples stored at > or =4 degrees C for prolonged periods.

The metabolism of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and related cannabinoids in man.

Initial pharmacokinetic analyses of the data show that the mean terminal-phase plasma half-life after intravenous administration of THC was about 30 hours; after oral administration, it was 23 hours; no significant statistical difference was noted between men and women as to metabolic routes or plasma terminal- phase half-lives.

Pharmacokinetics of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in rabbits following single or multiple intravenous doses.

Plasma clearance values were high, but the large amount of drug sequestered in tissues, reflected by large volumes of distribution, was the main determinant of terminal half-life, suggesting that distribution of delta 9-THC is governed by its physicochemical properties and not by any active transport process or specific barriers.

Tolerance and disposition of tetrahydrocannabinol in man.

  • C. A. HuntR. Jones
  • Medicine, Biology
    The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics
  • 1980
It is concluded that such pharmacokinetic and metabolic changes cannot account for the development of tolerance to the cardiovascular, psychological and skin hypothermic effects of THC.

Urinary elimination half-life of delta-1-tetrahydrocannabinol-7-oic acid in heavy marijuana users after smoking.

The urinary excretion of delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol-7-oic acid (delta 1-THC-7-oic acid), the major urinary metabolite of delta 1-THC, and the total amount of THC metabolites was studied in heavy

Cannabinoids in humans. II. The influence of three methods of hydrolysis on the concentration of THC and two metabolites in urine.

The results demonstrate the species-dependent nature of glucuronidase activity in hydrolyzing THC and 11-OH-THC glucuronides and the ineffectiveness of base hydrolysis on these hydroxylated compounds.

Cannabinoids in humans. I. Analysis of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and six metabolites in plasma and urine using GC-MS.

The method was designed to detect cannabidiol and cannabinol, two naturally occurring cannabinoids, and the cannabinoids were detected as their trimethylsilyl derivatives to enhance their chromatographic separation and mass spectral characteristics.