The Universe as a Black Hole

  title={The Universe as a Black Hole},
  author={R. K. Pathria},
SINCE Einstein applied his general theory of relativity to study the structure of the universe as a whole1, cosmologists have wondered if the universe is geometrically closed or open. Neither theory nor observation has been able to settle this question unambiguously. Several authors have hoped that the universe may after all be a closed, yet unbounded, system. This would solve many problems regarding the nature and origin of the universe, and would fit many of the observations of distant… 
The idea of the universe as a black hole revisited
The Friedmann equation for a homogeneous and isotropic universe model with a cosmological constant yields the eventual maximal expansion of a closed dust universe. On the other hand, from the line
Is the Universe a white-hole?
Abstract Pathria (1972) has shown, for a pressureless closed Universe, that it is inside a black (or white) hole. We show now, that the Universe with a cosmic pressure obeying Einstein’s field
What justifies the existence of a cosmological horizon?
The Black hole cosmology is a cosmological model in which the observable universe is the interior of a black hole. When this cosmology was proposed, it was unknown that the expansion of the universe
Basic Interactions in Black Hole Cosmology
By highlighting the 12 major shortcomings of modern big bang cosmology and reinterpreting the cosmic redshift as a galactic atomic emission phenomenon, the authors made an attempt to develop a
Universe in a Black Hole in Einstein–cartan Gravity
The conservation law for the angular momentum in curved spacetime requires that the antisymmetric part of the affine connection (the torsion tensor) is a variable in the principle of least action.
A note on pathria’s model of the universe as a black hole
Pathria has shown that, for the certain values of the cosmological constant, a pressureless closed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe can be the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. We examine
Black Hole Cosmology: A Biological Boom
In the previously published papers the authors made an attempt to develop a possible model of Black hole cosmology in a constructive way. In this model, forever rotating at light speed, high
Detectable universes inside regular black holes
  • Z. Roupas
  • Physics
    The European Physical Journal C
  • 2022
While spacetime in the vicinity outside astrophysical black holes is believed to be well understood, the event horizon and the interior remain elusive. Here, we discover a degenerate infinite
Is dark matter and black hole cosmology an effect of Born’s reciprocal relativity theory?
Born’s reciprocal relativity theory (BRRT), based on a maximal proper-force, maximal speed of light, and inertial and non-inertial observers, is re-examined in full detail. Relativity of locality and


This paper is reproduced from Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., Vol. 67, p. 82 - 98 (1955) to celebrate the centenary of the Publications. See also 004.116.