# The Universe as a Black Hole

@article{Pathria1972TheUA, title={The Universe as a Black Hole}, author={R. K. Pathria}, journal={Nature}, year={1972}, volume={240}, pages={298-299} }

SINCE Einstein applied his general theory of relativity to study the structure of the universe as a whole1, cosmologists have wondered if the universe is geometrically closed or open. Neither theory nor observation has been able to settle this question unambiguously. Several authors have hoped that the universe may after all be a closed, yet unbounded, system. This would solve many problems regarding the nature and origin of the universe, and would fit many of the observations of distant…

## 73 Citations

The idea of the universe as a black hole revisited

- Physics
- 2009

The Friedmann equation for a homogeneous and isotropic universe model with a cosmological constant yields the eventual maximal expansion of a closed dust universe. On the other hand, from the line…

Is the Universe a white-hole?

- Physics
- 2007

Abstract
Pathria (1972) has shown, for a pressureless closed Universe, that it is inside a black (or white) hole. We show now, that the Universe with a cosmic pressure obeying Einstein’s field…

What justifies the existence of a cosmological horizon?

- Physics
- 2020

The Black hole cosmology is a cosmological model in which the observable universe is the interior of a black hole. When this cosmology was proposed, it was unknown that the expansion of the universe…

Basic Interactions in Black Hole Cosmology

- Physics
- 2014

By highlighting the 12 major shortcomings of modern big bang cosmology and reinterpreting the cosmic redshift as a galactic atomic emission phenomenon, the authors made an attempt to develop a…

Universe in a Black Hole in Einstein–cartan Gravity

- Physics
- 2016

The conservation law for the angular momentum in curved spacetime requires that the antisymmetric part of the affine connection (the torsion tensor) is a variable in the principle of least action.…

A note on pathria’s model of the universe as a black hole

- Physics
- 2010

Pathria has shown that, for the certain values of the cosmological constant, a pressureless closed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe can be the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. We examine…

Black Hole Cosmology: A Biological Boom

- Physics
- 2014

In the previously published papers the authors made an attempt to develop a possible model of Black hole cosmology in a constructive way. In this model, forever rotating at light speed, high…

Detectable universes inside regular black holes

- PhysicsThe European Physical Journal C
- 2022

While spacetime in the vicinity outside astrophysical black holes is believed to be well understood, the event horizon and the interior remain elusive. Here, we discover a degenerate infinite…

Is dark matter and black hole cosmology an effect of Born’s reciprocal relativity theory?

- PhysicsCanadian Journal of Physics
- 2019

Born’s reciprocal relativity theory (BRRT), based on a maximal proper-force, maximal speed of light, and inertial and non-inertial observers, is re-examined in full detail. Relativity of locality and…

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