# The Uncertainty of Fluxes

@article{Freed2007TheUO, title={The Uncertainty of Fluxes}, author={Daniel S. Freed and Gregory W. Moore and Graeme B. Segal}, journal={Communications in Mathematical Physics}, year={2007}, volume={271}, pages={247-274} }

In the ordinary quantum Maxwell theory of a free electromagnetic field, formulated on a curved 3-manifold, we observe that magnetic and electric fluxes cannot be simultaneously measured. This uncertainty principle reflects torsion: fluxes modulo torsion can be simultaneously measured. We also develop the Hamilton theory of self-dual fields, noting that they are quantized by Pontrjagin self-dual cohomology theories and that the quantum Hilbert space is $${\mathbb{Z}/2\mathbb{Z}}$$ -graded, so…

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