The Type III Secretion Effector NleE Inhibits NF-kB Activation
The complex host-pathogen interplay involves the recognition of the pathogen by the host's innate immune system and countermeasures taken by the pathogen. Detection of invading bacteria by the host leads to rapid activation of the transcription factor NF-kB, followed by inflammation and eradication of the intruders. In response, some pathogens, including enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), acquired means of blocking NF-kB activation. We show that inhibition of NF-kB activation by EPEC involves the injection of NleE into the host cell. Importantly, we show that NleE inhibits NF-kB activation by preventing activation of IKKb and consequently the degradation of the NF-kB inhibitor, IkB. This NleE activity is enhanced by, but is not dependent on, a second injected effector, NleB. In conclusion, this study describes two effectors, NleB and NleE, with no similarity to other known proteins, used by pathogens to manipulate NF-kB signaling pathways. Copyright: ß 2010 Nadler et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.