The Twig Wasp of Cork Oak—Its Biology and Control

  title={The Twig Wasp of Cork Oak—Its Biology and Control},
  author={Stanley Fuller Bailey and Lionel A. Stange},
  journal={Journal of Economic Entomology},
Cork oak ( Quercus suber L.), the principal source of commercial cork, was introduced to this country in 1858 from acorns sent from Spain. For Many years no pests were noted. In 1918 the twig wasp Plagiotrochus suberi Weld, not described until 1926, was observed injuring the tree in California. It has since become a pest, particularly when the cork oak is planted as an ornamental or shade tree. The larvae feed within a jellylike matrix in the small twigs. The resulting dead twigs on the… 
Cynipid Gall Wasps in Declining Black Oak in New York: Relationships with Prior Tree History and Crown Dieback
Decline of black oak on New York’s Long Island in the early 1990s was associated with a cynipid gall wasp outbreak and a series of periodic environmental stress factors played an important role in triggering susceptibility and decline in affected trees.
Torymus sinensis Kamijo, a biocontrol agent against the invasive chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu in Spain: its natural dispersal from France and the first data on establishment after experimental releases
Aim of study: The globally invasive gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, 1951 (Cynipidae: Cynipini), reached Spain seven years ago and is already regarded as an important pest of chestnuts
Experimental study of the reproductive cycle of Plagiotrochus amenti Kieffer, 1901 (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Cynipidae), with comments on its taxonomy
The historical knowledge of this species is shown, the different reproductive hypothesis are explained and the experimental results of the reproduction of the circum-Mediterranean populations are presented and the possibility of allopatric speciation and the existence of different life cycles within this species in Europe are discussed.
The Description of Zapatella davisae, New Species, (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) a Pest Gallwasp of Black Oak (Quercus velutina) in New England, USA.
Historical records of other species of Zapatella suggest that members of this genus have a checkered record with respect to damaging their host plants in North America, and these data are summarized here.
New Records of Gall-inducer and Inquiline Insects in a Few Mediterranean Countries, with Biological Notes
An annotated list of some gall-inducing and inquiline insects found on herbaceous plants and trees in Italy and in other few Mediterranean countries is reported. Among the gall-inducer species,
Non-native gall-inducing insects on forest trees: a global review
The gall inducers that have become invasive pests of forest trees are surveyed, most of which belong to just four insect families in three orders: Hemiptera (Adelgidae), Diptera (Cecidomyiidae) and Hymenoptera (Cynipidae and Eulophidae).
The population biology of oak gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).
This work assesses the importance of gall traits in structuring oak cynipid communities and summarize the evidence for bottom-up and top-down effects across trophic levels, and identifies major unanswered questions and suggest approaches for the future.
Early parasitoid recruitment in invading cynipid galls
The early recruitment of parasitoids to the alien species in the UK and D. kuriphilus in Japan are reviewed, their role in the invaders population dynamics, and how they link the invaders to native cynipid communities are reviewed.
Doses Wolbachia Induce Unisexuality in Oak Gall Wasps? (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)
Wolbachia is not responsible for unisexuality in heterogonic or thelytokous species of Cynipini, according to a PCR assay on the unisexual adults.