The Trojan hives: pollinator pathogens, imported and distributed in bumblebee colonies

  title={The Trojan hives: pollinator pathogens, imported and distributed in bumblebee colonies},
  author={Peter Graystock and Kathryn Yates and Sophie E. F. Evison and Ben Darvill and Dave Goulson and William O. H. Hughes},
  journal={Journal of Applied Ecology},
Summary 1. Over a million commercially produced bumblebee colonies are imported annually on a global scale for the pollination of greenhouse crops. After importation, they interact with other pollinators, with an associated risk of any parasites they carry infecting and harming native bees. National and supranational regulations are designed to prevent this, and commercially produced bumblebee colonies are accordingly now often sold and imported as being parasite-free. 2. Here, we used… 

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