The Troika: The Interlocking Roles of Commission v. Luxembourg and Belgium, Van Gend En Loos and Costa v. ENEL in the Creation of the European Legal Order

@article{Phelan2015TheTT,
  title={The Troika: The Interlocking Roles of Commission v. Luxembourg and Belgium, Van Gend En Loos and Costa v. ENEL in the Creation of the European Legal Order},
  author={William J. Phelan},
  journal={European Private Law eJournal},
  year={2015}
}
Through a comparison with dispute resolution procedures in NAFTAOs Side Agreements, this paper demonstrates that three of the ECJOs most important decisions Ð Van Gend en Loos, Costa v Enel, and Commission v Luxembourg and Belgium Ð should be understood as combining to reorganize general international lawOs relationship between the EU member states and thus providing the foundations for the EUOs distinctive legal order. 

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