The Tragedy of the Commons: Twenty-two years later

  title={The Tragedy of the Commons: Twenty-two years later},
  author={David Feeny and Fikret Berkes and Bonnie J. McCay and James Acheson},
  journal={Human Ecology},
Hardin's Tragedy of the Commons model predicts the eventual overexploitation or degradation of all resources used in common. Given this unambiguous prediction, a surprising number of cases exist in which users have been able to restrict access to the resource and establish rules among themselves for its sustainable use. To assess the evidence, we first define common-property resources and present a taxonomy of property-rights regimes in which such resources may be held. Evidence accumulated… 

Retrospectives: Tragedy of the Commons after 50 Years

Garrett Hardin’s “The Tragedy of the Commons” (1968) has been incredibly influential generally and within economics, and it remains important despite some historical and conceptual flaws. Hardin

The Tragedy of the Commons: A Theoretical Update

  • J. Acheson
  • Economics
    Studies in Human Ecology and Adaptation
  • 2019
The theory of common property resources traces the overexploitation of natural resources to the absence of ownership rights. Garrett Hardin argues such resources can be managed, if at all, by

The Tragedy of “The Tragedy of the Commons”: Hardin versus the Property Rights Theorists

Garrett Hardin’s article “The Tragedy of the Commons” is widely influential but fundamentally incorrect. Hardin characterizes the commons problem as arising from the exercise of free will in a world

Questioning the Assumptions of the "Tragedy of the Commons" Model of Fisheries

The "tragedy of the commons" argument predicts the overexploitation of resources held in common. There is a great deal of evidence to the contrary. The descriptive accuracy and predictive validity of

The Tragedy of ‘The Tragedy of the Commons’ – Hardin vs. the Property Rights Theorists

Garrett Hardin’s “The Tragedy of the Commons” (Hardin, 1968) is widely influential but fundamentally incorrect. Hardin characterizes the commons problem as arising from the exercise of free will in a

Potential Games and the Tragedy of the Commons

It is found that costs of access and costs of production determine the equilibrium number of resource users in open access regimes and a natural link between Cournot competition and the tragedy of the commons is found.

The Tragedy of the Commons: Institutions and Fisheries Management at the Local and EU Levels

Garrett Hardin's Tragedy of the Commons argument states that resources held in common will inevitably suffer overexploitation and degradation. However, recent contradicting evidence has led theorists

Revisiting the commons: local lessons, global challenges.

New insights about the management of large-scale resources that depend on international cooperation and the conditions most likely to favor sustainable uses of common-pool resources are discussed.

Can small groups avoid the tragedy of the commons?

Small groups who promote their coordination to achieve collective goals, aimed at the preservation and perpetuation of scarce natural resources of common use are analyzed to avoid an eventual tragic outcome of total environment degradation.

Title Modeling the commons as a game with vector payoffs Permalink

Since Hardin first formulated the tragedy of the commons, researchers have described various ways that commons problems are solved, all based on the model of individual rationality. Invariably, these



Fishermen and ‘The Tragedy of the Commons’

  • F. Berkes
  • Economics
    Environmental Conservation
  • 1985
Fish populations are classical examples of commonproperty resources and tend to decline over time. According to the conventional wisdom, they decline through a process popularly known as ‘the tragedy

No Tragedy of the Commons

The historical antecedents of Garrett Hardin's "tragedy of the commons" are generally understood to lie in the common grazing lands of medieval and post-medieval England. The concept of the commons

The Japanese Experience With Scarcity: Management of Traditional Common Lands

One of the first things we all learn in studying environmental problems is that environmental quality is a public or collective good and, conversely, that environmental degradation is a public or

The Economics of Overexploitation

The general economic analysis of a biological resource presented in this article suggests that overexploitation in the physical sense of reduced productivity may result from not one, but two social

The economic theory of a common-property resource: The fishery

  • H. Gordon
  • Economics
    Journal of Political Economy
  • 1954
The chief aim of this paper is to examine the economic theory of natural resource utilization as it pertains to the fishing industry. It will appear, I hope, that most of the problems associated with

What Happens When Common Property Becomes Uncommon

A popular American song of the 1940s expressed a general and uncontentious belief : the moon — and as well, it was believed, the air, the water, and the natural resources of the earth (though already

The Fishery: The Objectives of Sole Ownership

  • A. Scott
  • Economics
    Journal of Political Economy
  • 1955
The rights of property, as such, have not been venerated by those master minds who have built up economic science; but the authority of the science has been wrongly assumed by some who have pushed

Toward an Interactive Theory of Nature and Culture: Ecology, Production, and Cognition in the California Fishing Industry

  • A. McEvoy
  • History, Law
    Environmental Review
  • 1987
One of the great mythic cases in the history of Anglo-American property law is that of Pierson v. Post, which came before a New York appellate court in 1805.1 This was a contest between competing fox

The Lobster Gangs of Maine

James Acheson s detailed account of lobstering in Maine quickly dispels notions that the lobstermen is the eastern version of the cowboy, struggling alone for survival against the elements. In

Land degradation and society

Acknowledges that the reasons why land management can fail are extremely varied, and must include a thorough understanding of the changing natural resource base itself, the human response to this,