The Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM): Science Results

  title={The Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM): Science Results},
  author={Greg Kopp and George M. Lawrence and Gary J. Rottman},
  journal={Solar Physics},
The solar observations from the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) are discussed since the SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) launch in January 2003. The TIM measurements clearly show the background disk-integrated solar oscillations of generally less than 50 parts per million (ppm) amplitude over the ∼2 ppm instrument noise level. The total solar irradiance (TSI) from the TIM is about 1361 W/m2, or 4–5 W/m2 lower than that measured by other current TSI instruments. This difference is… 
Total Solar Irradiance Observations
The record of total solar irradiance (TSI) during the past 35 years has overlapping observations from space which can be merged to a composite, and three are available, namely the PMOD, the ACRIM and
Measurements and modeling of total solar irradiance in X-class solar flares
The Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) from NASA's SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment can detect changes in the total solar irradiance (TSI) to a precision of 2 ppm, allowing observations of
Contributions of the solar ultraviolet irradiance to the total solar irradiance during large flares
[1] The solar X-ray radiation varies more than other wavelengths during flares; thus solar X-ray irradiance measurements are relied upon for detecting flare events as well as used to study flare
A new, lower value of total solar irradiance: Evidence and climate significance
The most accurate value of total solar irradiance during the 2008 solar minimum period is 1360.8 ± 0.5 W m−2 according to measurements from the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) on NASA's Solar
Science Highlights and Final Updates from 17 Years of Total Solar Irradiance Measurements from the SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment/Total Irradiance Monitor (SORCE/TIM)
  • G. Kopp
  • Physics, Environmental Science
    Solar physics
  • 2021
The final version (V.19) of the total solar irradiance data from the SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) Total Irradiance Monitor has been released, and an overview of the on-orbit operations timeline is provided as well as the associated changes in the time-dependent uncertainties.
Trends in solar spectral irradiance variability in the visible and infrared
The Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM) on‐board the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) satellite provides the first multi‐year continuous measurements of solar spectral irradiance (SSI)
Solar irradiance variability: a six-year comparison between SORCE observations and the SATIRE model
Aims. We investigate how well modeled solar irradiances agree with measurements from the SORCE satellite, both for total solar irradiance and broken down into spectral regions on timescales of
Solar Irradiance Variability: Modeling the Measurements
New models of the Sun's irradiance variability are developed from 15 years of direct observations made by the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) spacecraft from 2003 to 2017 (inclusive).
Solar total irradiance in cycle 23
Context. The most recent minimum of solar activity was deeper and longer than the previous two minima as indicated by different proxies of solar activity. This is also true for the total solar


Solar irradiance variability during the October 2003 solar storm period
The extraordinary solar storms between 18 October 2003 and 5 November 2003 include over 140 flares, primarily from two different large sunspot groups. There were 11 large X‐class flares during this
Solar radiative output and its variability: evidence and mechanisms
Abstract.Electromagnetic radiation from the Sun is Earth’s primary energy source. Space-based radiometric measurements in the past two decades have begun to establish the nature, magnitude and
Calculation of Solar Irradiances. I. Synthesis of the Solar Spectrum
Variations in the total radiative output of the Sun as well as the detailed spectral irradiance are of interest to terrestrial and solar-stellar atmosphere studies. Recent observations provide
Secular total solar irradiance trend during solar cycles 21–23
A series of satellite total solar irradiance (TSI) observations can be combined in a precise solar magnetic cycle length composite TSI database by determining the relationship between two
Upper limits on the total radiant energy of solar flares
We establish limits on the total radiant energy of solar flares during the period 1980 February – November, using the solar-constant monitor (ACRIM) on board the Solar Maximum Mission. Typical limits
Wavelength dependency of the Solar limb darkening
A single parameter model of the mean Solar limb- darkening is presented. This empirical law has the advantage to represent the limb darkening over a large spectrum at least as well as a quadratic or