The Tortoise and the Hare

  title={The Tortoise and the Hare},
  author={Mary C. Stiner and Natalie D. Munro and Todd A. Surovell},
  journal={Current Anthropology},
  pages={39 - 79}
This study illustrates the potential of small‐game data for identifying and dating Paleolithic demographic pulses such as those associated with modern human origins and the later evolution of food‐producing economies. Archaeofaunal series from Israel and Italy serve as our examples. Three important implications of this study are that (1) early Middle Paleolithic populations were exceptionally small and highly dispersed, (2) the first major population growth pulse in the eastern Mediterranean… 
Approaches to Prehistoric Diet Breadth, Demography, and Prey Ranking Systems in Time and Space
Ranking small prey in terms of work of capture (in the absence of special harvesting tools) proves far more effective in this investigation of human diet breadth than taxonomy-based diversity analyses published previously.
The Evolution of Hominin Diets
Studies in southern Africa, western Europe, and the Mediterranean Basin have documented changes in subsistence strategies and technologies during the Late Pleistocene, and have often related them to
Middle Paleolithic Subsistence Ecology in the Mediterranean Region
  • M. Stiner
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 2006
The assertion that Middle Paleolithic humans were large game hunters is almost certainly true, but this statement reveals little about subsistence organization, land use, and demography, some of
Paleolithic Diet and the Division of Labor in Mediterranean Eurasia
Hunter-gatherers of the recent era vary in many aspects of culture, yet they display great uniformity in their tendency to divide labor along the lines of gender and age. We argue on the basis of
Tracking the Carbon Footprint of Paleolithic Societies in Mediterranean Ecosystems
There can be no question that the rise of agricultural economies some 10,000 years ago redefined humans’ relationship with nature. Such economies greatly amplified the potential of human cultural
An Unshakable Middle Paleolithic?
  • M. Stiner
  • Environmental Science
    Current Anthropology
  • 2013
Examination of data for possible trends in the size of the hominin ecological footprint, hunting practices, trophic level, food sharing, and the intensity with which sites were occupied concludes that the seeming rigidity of MP hunting economics could have been the secret to its widespread success for 200,000 years.
Case Study 21. Chasing Smaller Game: The Archaeology of Modernity
In the well-studied ancient landscape of Europe, there was a sudden change starting around 46,000 years ago, as modern people replaced Neanderthals and the Middle Paleolithic gave way to the Upper
Human Prey Choice in the Late Pleistocene and Its Relation to Megafaunal Extinctions
Early Paleoindian hunting is examined from an ethnographic, zooarcheological, and behavioral ecological standpoint, and the interpretation of direct human involvement in the demise of multiple species of animals is clouded by larger issues concerning hunter-gatherer economics and climate change.
Changes in the ‘Connectedness’ and Resilience of Paleolithic Societies in Mediterranean Ecosystems
The zooarchaeological findings suggest that Middle and Lower Paleolithic reproductive units probably were not robust at the micropopulation scale, due to the rather narrow set of behavioral responses that characterized social groups at the time, and thus localized extinctions at themicropopulations level were likely to have been common.


Last hunters - first farmers : new perspectives on the prehistoric transition to agriculture
During virtually the entire four-million-year history of our habitation on this planet, humans have been hunters and gatherers, dependent for nourishment on the availability of wild plants and
The Exploitation of Carnivores and Other Fur‐bearing Mammals during the North‐western European Late and Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic
The exploitation of large mammals, particularly large herbivores, has dominated perceptions of Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic subsistence behaviour in north-western Europe. This paper critically
Neanderthal Carnivory. (Book Reviews: Honor Among Thieves. A Zooarchaeological Study of Neandertal Ecology.)
  • M. Stiner
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 1994
The conclusion is that Neandertals entered the Middle Palaeolithic in direct and successful competition with lions, hyenas and wolves, but ended the period in unsuccessful struggle for the ecological niche that modern humans came to occupy with more advanced technology and slightly more sophisticated ambush hunting strategies and techniques.
Simulating Mammoth Hunting and Extinction: Implications for the Late Pleistocene of the Central Russian Plain
  • S. Mithen
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 1993
Mammoths were an important resource for Upper Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers. Their remains are frequently found in faunal assemblages, their bones were used for the construction of dwellings, and
The Human Food Niche in the Levant Over the Past 150,000 Years
Archaeologists have tended to accept Flannery's (1969) broad spectrum revolution (BSR) as a general phase in an evolutionary sequence of subsistence changes leading to the appearance of domestication
Paleolithic population growth pulses evidenced by small animal exploitation
Variations in small game hunting along the northern and eastern rims of the Mediterranean Sea and results from predator-prey simulation modeling indicate that human population densities increased
Climate chage and the advent of domestication: the succesion of ruminant artiodactyls in the late Pleistocene-Holocene period in the Israel region
  • S. Davis
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 1982
Two faunal changes occurred in the Late Pleistocene-Holocene archaeo-faunal sequence in the Israel Region, one of which signifies the advent of animal domestication and the other indicates aridification.
Modeling Population Viability for the Desert Tortoise in the Western Mojave Desert
It is found that the rate of population growth is most sensitive to the survival of large adult females and that improving survival of this size class to reputably "pristine" rates could reverse population declines; in contrast, large improvements in other vital rates will not, alone, reverse population decline.