The Ties That Double Bind: Social Roles and Women's Underrepresentation in Politics

  title={The Ties That Double Bind: Social Roles and Women's Underrepresentation in Politics},
  author={Dawn Langan Teele and Joshua L. Kalla and Frances Mccall Rosenbluth},
  journal={American Political Science Review},
  pages={525 - 541}
This paper theorizes three forms of bias that might limit women's representation: outright hostility, double standards, and a double bind whereby desired traits present bigger burdens for women than men. We examine these forms of bias using conjoint experiments derived from several original surveys—a population survey of American voters and two rounds of surveys of American public officials. We find no evidence of outright discrimination or of double standards. All else equal, most groups of… 

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