The Three Faces of Negative Campaigning: The Democratic Implications of Attack Ads, Cynical News, and Fear-Arousing Messages

@inproceedings{Crigler2006TheTF,
  title={The Three Faces of Negative Campaigning: The Democratic Implications of Attack Ads, Cynical News, and Fear-Arousing Messages},
  author={Ann N. Crigler and M. Just and Todd L. Belt},
  year={2006}
}
“Negative campaigning” is widely deplored by journalists and the public. Commonly, the term negative campaigning refers to critical statements or visuals of political candidates, institutions, processes, or policy issues that may occur during an election campaign. These negative messages are ubiquitous in campaigns. They are found not only in political advertisements, but also in the news, talk shows, Internet Web pages, and late-night TV comedians’ monologues. Negative campaigning ranges from… Expand
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